Sipadeh

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?Jahe
Zingiber officinale - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-146.jpg
Status konservasi
Aman
Klasifikasi ilmiah
Karajaan: Plantae
(indak tamasuak) Monokotil
(indak tamasuak) Commelinids
Ordo: Zingiberales
Famili: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Zingiber
Spesies: Z. officinale
Namo binomial
Zingiber officinale
Roscoe[1]

Sipadeh (namo ilmiah: Zingiber officinale, Indonesia: Jahe) adoleh ciek tumbuahan babungo nan akanyo (rimpang) biaso dipakai urang untuak rampah-rampah jo ubek tradisional.[2]

Produksi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Di taun 2013, produksi sipadeh dunia mancapai 2,1 juta ton, di mano India maasiaan 33%, diikuik dek Cino (19%), Nepal, Indonesia, jo Nigeria (caliak tabel).[3]

Komposisi jo kaamanan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Apobilo dimakan dalam jumalah nan patuik sajo, sipadeh umumnyo indak ado efek sampiangnyo.[4] Sipadeh tamasuak dalam daftar "makanan nan aman sacaro umum" dari FDA,[5] sungguahpun dapek tajadi interaksi jo babarapo ubek, misanyo jo ubek antikoagulan warfarin[6] sarato ubek kardiovaskular nifedipine.[7]

Panah ditamuan produk asa Cino di Taiwan nan manganduang sipadeh nan lah tacampua diisobutyl phthalate (aditif plastik), inggo sakita 80.000 kapsul suplemen nutrisi nan dibuek dari tapuang sipadeh impor disita dek Departmen Kasiatan Umum Taiwan pado bulan Juni 2011.[8]

Kandungan kimiawi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Aroma jo raso kusuih sipadeh baasa dari minyak-minyak atsiri nan marupoan 1-3% dari barek sipadeh baru, tarutamo adolah zingerone, shogaol jo gingerol, di mano [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) adolah sanyao padeh utamo.[2][9][10]

Produksi Sipadeh, 2013
Nagara Produksi

(juta ton)

India
0,683
China
0,390
Nepal
0,235
Indonesia
0,233
Nigeria
0,160
Dunia
2,1

Sumber: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, FAOSTAT[3]

Zingerone diasiaan dari gingerol salamo pangariangan, padehnyo agak kurang jo aromanyo padeh-manih.[10]

Efek biologis[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Sipadeh maasiaan aksi sialagogue, yaitu maransang produksi aia liua, nan mambuek labiah mudah manalan.[11]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?42254. Diakses pado 3 Maret 2008. 
  2. ^ a b University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Ginger". http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/ginger-000246.htm. Diakses pado 2 Agustus 2007. 
  3. ^ a b "Production/Crops for Ginger, World". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Statistics Division. 14 April 2013. http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E. Diakses pado 24 Desember 2015. 
  4. ^ Marcello Spinella (2001). The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medications: Plant Drugs That Alter Mind, Brain, and Behavior. MIT Press. pp. 272–. ISBN 978-0-262-69265-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=jZeaRiIFbhsC&pg=PA272. Diakses pado 13 April 2013. 
  5. ^ "Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 182, Sec. 182.20: Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates): Substances Generally Recognized As Safe". US Food and Drug Administration. 1 September 2014. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.20. Diakses pado 21 Desember 2014. 
  6. ^ Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, Ingaszewski A, Kerr C (2007). "Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis". Pharmacotherapy 27 (9): 1237–47. doi:10.1592/phco.27.9.1237. PMID 17723077. 
  7. ^ "Ginger, NCCIH Herbs at a Glance". US National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. http://nccih.nih.gov/health/ginger/. Diakses pado 25 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "Taichung City: Nutrition products made with contaminated ginger powder seized – Taiwan News Online". Etaiwannews.com. 16 Juni 2011. http://www.etaiwannews.com/etn/news_content.php?id=1627491&lang=eng_news&cate_rss=TAIWAN_eng. Diakses pado 25 April 2012. 
  9. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (edisi ke-2nd). New York: Scribner. pp. 425–426. ISBN 0-684-80001-2. 
  10. ^ a b An K, Zhao D, Wang Z, Wu J, Xu Y, Xiao G (2016). "Comparison of different drying methods on Chinese ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): Changes in volatiles, chemical profile, antioxidant properties, and microstructure". Food Chem 197 (Part B): 1292–300. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.11.033. PMID 26675871. 
  11. ^ Wood, George Bacon (1867). "Class IX. Sialagogues". A Treatise On Therapeutics, And Pharmacology Or Materia Medica: Volume 2. J. B. Lippincott & Co. http://chestofbooks.com/health/materia-medica-drugs/Treatise-Therapeutics-Pharmacology-Materia-Medica-Vol2/Class-IX-Sialagogues.html. Diakses pado 2 Maret 2013. 

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]