Nepal

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Republik Demokratik Federal Nepal

  • सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (language?)
  • Saṅghīya Lokatāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Flag of Nepal
Flag
Emblem of Nepal
Emblem
Motto: जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी (language?)
Bundo jo ibu pertiwi lai basa daripado sarugo (language?)
Anthem: सयौं थुँगा फूलका  (language?)
Tabuek dari baratuih bungo (language?)
Location of Nepal
Location of Nepal
Capital
and largest city
Kathmandu
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250Koordinat: 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250
Official languages Nepali
Recognised national languages All languages used in Nepal
Ethnic groups
(2011)
Religion
81.3% Hinduism
9% Buddhism
4.4% Islam
3% Kirant
1.4% Christianity
0.4% Animism
0.5% Irreligion[1][2]
Demonym(s) Nepali (official), Nepalese
Government Federal parliamentary republic
• President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari
Nanda Kishor Pun
Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli
Cholendra Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana
Ganesh Prasad Timilsina
(vacant)[lower-alpha 1][3]
Legislature Federal Parliament
National Assembly
House of Representatives
Formation
25 September 1768[4]
18 May 2006[5]
28 May 2008
20 September 2015
Area
• Total
Templat:Convinfobox/prisec2 (93rd)
• Water (%)
2.8
Population
• Templat:UN Population estimate
Templat:UN PopulationTemplat:UN Population (48th)
• 2011 census
26,494,504[6]
• Density
Templat:Convinfobox/prisec2 (62nd)

Nepal (bahaso Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpal]), nan namo rasminyo Republik Demokratik Federal Nepal,[10] adolah ciek nagara padalaman (takuruang daratan) nan barado di Asia Selatan. Sabagian gadang wilayahnyo talatak di pagunuangan Himalaya, tapi ado pulo sabagian ketek pulo nan tamasuak bagian dari dataran randah Indo-Gangga. Jumalah panduduaknyo dipakiroan mancapai 26,4 juta jiwa, di ma nagara iko marupoan paringkek ka-48 di dunia kok diliek dari populasinyo, sarato paringkek ka-93 kok diliek dari laweh wilayahnyo.[6][11] Nepal babateh wilayah jo Cino di sabalah utaranyo, sarato jo India di selatan, timur, jo baratnyo; samantaro Bangladesh talatak anyo 27 km (17 mi) dari ujuang tenggaranyo, jo Bhutan tapisah jo nagara bagian Sikkim di Indian. Karagaman geografi Nepal maliputi dataran-dataran subua,[12] bukik-bukik rimbo sub-alpina, sarato dalapan dari sapuluah gunuang tatinggi di dunia, tamasuak Gunuang Everest nan adolah titiak tatinggi di Bumi. Kathmandu adolah ibukota jo kota tagadang di nagara ko. Nepal marupoan nagara multietnik nan mamakai bahaso Nepali sabagai bahaso rasminyo.

Namo "Nepal" patamo kali tacataik dalam naskah-naskah dari periode Weda di anak benua India, pado maso India kuno kutiko ajaran Hinduisme tabantuak, nan adolah agamo utamo nagara iko. Pado patangahan milenium patamo SM, Buddha Gautama nan pambao ajaran Buddhisme laia di Lumbini di Nepal selatan. Sabagian dari Nepal utara bakaik arek jo budayo Tibet. Lambah Kathmandu nan lataknyo di tangah-tangah bakaik arek jo budayo Indo-Aryan,[13] jo marupoan tampek kaduduakan pasakutuan (konferderasi) Newar nan makmur nan dikana jo sabuikan Mandala Nepal. Jalua Himalaya nan bagian dari Jalan Sutra kuno dikuasoi dek para padagang lambah. Wilayah kosmopolitan ko mangambangan seni jo arsitektur tradisionalnyo nan kusuih. Pado abaik ka-18, Karajaan Gorkha barasia manyatuan Nepal. Dinasti Shah mandirian Karajaan Nepal jo kudian basakutu jo Karajaan Britania, di bawah kabijakan dinasti Rana sabagai para pardana mantarinyo. Nagara iko indak panah dijajah namun manjadi nagara panyangga (buffer state) antaro Kakaisaran Cino jo India Britania.[14][15][16] Demokrasi parlementer dijalanan sajak 1951, tapi duo kali sampek ditangguahan dek rajo-rajo Nepal, yaitu taun 1960 jo 2005. Parang Saudara Nepal pado taun 1990-n jo awa 2000-an maakibaikan tabantuaknyo republik sekuler pado taun 2008, inggo baakia pulo lah karajoan Hindu taakia di dunia iko.[17]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. "2011 Nepal Census Report". http://cbs.gov.np/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/National%20Report.pdf. 
  2. Shrestha, Khadga Man (2005). "Religious Syncretism and Context of Buddhism in Modern Nepal". Voice of History 20 (1): 51–60. doi:10.3126/voh.v20i1.85. 
  3. Sharma, Bhadra, "Parliament Speaker in Nepal Resigns After Rape Accusation ", The New York Times, 1 Oktober 2019.
  4. "Nepal5". Royalark.net. http://www.royalark.net/Nepal/nepal5.htm. Diakses pado 14 Pebruari 2014. 
  5. "Vote to curb Nepal king's powers ", 18 Mai 2006. Diakses pado 19 Mai 2018.
  6. a b "National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)". Central Bureau of Statistics (Nepal). Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 18 April 2013. https://web.archive.org/web/20130418041642/http://cbs.gov.np/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/National%20Report.pdf. Diakses pado 26 Nopember 2012. 
  7. a b c d "Nepal". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=70&pr.y=12&sy=2018&ey=2018&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=558&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. Diakses pado 12 Maret 2016. 
  8. "Gini Index". World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/. Diakses pado 2 Maret 2011. 
  9. "Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 4 Desember 2017. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 22 Maret 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170322153238/http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf. Diakses pado 22 Maret 2017. 
  10. "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/np.html. Diakses pado 5 Desember 2012. 
  11. "The World Factbook: Rank order population". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2147rank.html. Diakses pado 14 Pebruari 2014. 
  12. Shaha (1992), p. 1.
  13. Saartje Verbeke (22 March 2013). Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages. De Gruyter. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-11-029267-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=63iC56LeJ_MC&pg=PA146. 
  14. Lawoti, Mahendra; Hangen, Susan (2013). Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Nepal: Identities and Mobilization After 1990. Routledge. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-415-78097-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=D7Oga-GvExMC&pg=PA48. 
  15. Paul, T. V. (2010). South Asia's Weak States: Understanding the Regional Insecurity Predicament. Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804778534. https://books.google.com/books?id=hPEOYtC5_zwC. 
  16. Acharya, Baburam (2013). The Bloodstained Throne: Struggles for Power in Nepal (1775–1914). Penguin UK. p. 215. ISBN 978-93-5118-204-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=UWQtAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT215. 
  17. "Timeline: Nepal's rocky road from monarchy to democracy ", 26 Nopember 2017.


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