Wahhabisme

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Wahabi atau Wahhabisme (Arab: الوهابية‎, al-Wahhābiya(h)) adolah sabuah aliran jo gerakan reformasi agamo dalam Islam nan mulonyo dipimpin dek Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab.[lower-alpha 1] Gerakan ko acok disabuik sabagai aliran "ultakonservatif",[1] "kareh",[2] atau "puritan".[3][4][5] Pandukuang gerakan ko picayo baso gerakannyo sabagai "gerakan reformasi", nan batujuan untuak mambaliakan ajaran agamo ka "ajaran tauhid nan murni",[6] baliak ka ajaran Islam nan sabananyo, nan marujuak pado Al-Qur'an jo Hadits, barasiah dari sagalo panyimpangan nan dianggap bid'ah, syirik, jo khurafat.[6][7] Samantaro panatangnyo manyabuik Wahabi sabagai "gerakan sektarian nan sasek",[6] "sekte cacek",[8] atau panyimpang ajaran Islam.[2][9] Istilah Wahabi acok manuai polemik dan dek pandukuangnyo biasonyo manulak mamakai istilah tu, labiah ka tuju jo manyabuik Salafi atau muwahhid,[10][11][12] untuak manakanan prinsip katauhidan[13] ("Aso" jo "Tungga"nyo Allah)[14], manulak pado kalompok lain nan masih mampraktikkan kasyirikan.[15] Gerakan ko dipangaruahi jo Ibnu Taymiyyah sarato mazhab Hambali, walaupun rami juo dari kalangan ulama Hambali nan manulak gagasan Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab.[5]

Wahhabisme dinamoi manuruik namo aktivis sarato pandakwah abaik ka-18, Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792).[5] Baliau mamulai gerakan reformasinyo di daerah Najd,[16] manyampaian baso paralunyo pambarasiahan ajaran Islam nan sangkek tu marak bacampua jo pamujaan ka urang siak sarupo bakunjuang ka kubua urang-urang siak sarato mandoa di situ, nan dek baliau dianggap sabagai hal baru dalam agamo (bid'ah).[14][17] Nan akhianyo, baliau bakarajo samo jo pamimpin satampek, Muhammad bin Saud, nan manawarkan kapatuahan politik sarato bajanji untuak malinduangi jo mambantu panyebaran dakwah Wahabi.[18]

Aliansi antaro pandukuang Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab jo Muhammad bin Saud alah jaleh tajalin arek. Katurunan Saud taruih malanjuikan karajo samo aliansi politik-agamo ko inggo proklamasi Karajaan Arab Saudi pado taun 1932, bahkan inggo zaman modern. Kini ajaran Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab alah ditatapan sabagai ajaran rasmi Islam Sunni[2][19] nan didukuang karajaan.[20] Jo bantuan dana dari ekspor minyak Arab Saudi,[21][22] gerakan ko bakambang capek mampangaruahi dunia Islam sajak taun 1970-an.[2] Kamantarian Lua Nagari Amerika Serikat alah mampakirokan baso alah labiah dari ampek dekade tarakhia Riyadh alah maaliahan lansuang pandanaan malalui yayasan-yayasan nan dikalola dek Wahabi inggo $10 milyar (£6 milyar).[23]

"Bateh" untuak manantuan nan ma nan Wahabi amaiklah payah,[24] tapi dalam pamakaiannyo kini, istilah Wahabi jo Salafi acok batuka pamakaiannyo dan inyo disabuik sabagai gerakan nan akanyo babeda nan alah manyatu sajak taun 1960-an.[25][26][27] Walau baitu, Wahabi disabuik sabagai "aliran tatantu dalam Salafi",[28] atau sabagai Salafinyo Saudi.[29][30] Dipakirokan jumlah pandukuang Wahabi amaik baragam, manuruik ciek sumber adola 5 juta urang Wahabi di Taluak Persia (dibandiangan jo sadoalah Islam Sunni 28,5 juta sarato Syiah 89 juta).[20][31]

Mayoritas Sunni jo Syiah di saluruah dunia kurang satuju jo ajaran Wahabi, dan rami Muslim nan manyabuiknyo sabagai sekte atau "aliran nan manyimpang".[8] Rami dari kalangan ulama, tamasuak nan dari Universitas Al-Azhar, manyabuik Wahabi jo istilah sarupo "ajaran setan".[32] Wahabisme alah dituduah sabagai "sumber dari sagalo bantuak terorisme global",[33][34] dek dianggap mainspirasi ideologi Islamic State of Iraq and Syam (ISIS),[35] sarato mambuek umaik tacarai dek malabeli Muslim lain nan manantang dakwahnyo sabagai kafir[36] (takfir) sarato manyaru untuak manumpahan darahnyo.[37][38][39] Wahabisme pun dikritik pulo dek usahonyo dalam maancuran makam-makam urang siak, mausoleum, sarato artefak-artefak jo bangunan-bangunan Islam jo non-Islam.[40][41][42]

Ajaran[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pangikuik gerakan Wahabi maidentifikasi diri sabagai Islam Sunni (Ahlussunnah wal jamaah).[43] Ajaran utamo dari Wahabi adolah panagehan tantang kaasoan jo tungganyo Allah,[44][45] malawan kasyirikan.[46] Dakwah nan disampaian iyolah maajak umaik untuak manjalanan ajaran agamo bak cando kaum salaf (umaik tadaulu). Sacaro tageh, pangikuik ajaran ko manulak ajaran-ajaran bid'ah nan biaso dilakukan mayoritas Sunni jo Syiah di saluruah dunia,[47] sarupo bakalabiahan dalam manyanjuang nabi jo urang-urang siak. Wahabi manakankan pado pamahaman literal pado tafsir Al-Quran jo Hadits, nan manulak pamahaman dalil-dalil jo logika atau rasional (ahlur-ra'yu). Wahabi acok dikaikkan jo pamahaman takfir (malabeli muslim lainnyo sabagai kafir) dek panantang-panantangnyo. Ajaran Wahabi pun maajaan paralunyo ijtihad salamo basasuaian jo isi kanduangan Quran, Sunnah, sarato ajaran kaum salaf, nan deknyo hal ko ndak disabuik sabagai bid'ah.[48]

Populasi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pangikuik ajaran Wahabi kiro-kiro ado 4,56 juta urang di Taluak Persia, di mano 4 juta dari Arab Saudi (umumnyo Najd) dan sisonyo dari Uni Emirat Arab jo Qatar. Paretongan ko dibuek manuruik kriteria budayo bukan sacaro panyatoan.[49] Banyak dari Sunni di Qatar nan Wahabi (46,9%) sarato 44,8% di Uni Emirat Arab. 5,7% urang Bahrain sarato 2,2% urang Kuwait nan Wahabi.[49]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Catatan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. WAHHABIYYA, sabuah istilah nan dipakai untuak manunjuakan (a) doktrin sarato (b) pangikuik Muhammad b. Abd al-Wahhab. Brill Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed
     • Wahhābīyah Gerakan kabangkitan agamo abaik kasalapan baleh (tajdīd) jo reformasi (islāh) nan didirian di Najd di Arab Saudi dek sarjana sarato ahli hukum Muḥammad bin 'Abd al-Wahhāb (1702/3–1791/2). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World
     • WAHHABIYAH Sabuah kalompok pambaruan Islam nan didirian dek Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahhab (AH AH 1206/1792 M), Wahhabıyah taruik balanjuik sampai kini di Jazirah Arab. Istilah Wahhabı mulonyo dipakai dek lawan gerakan, nan manuduah baso inyo adolah bantuak baru Islam, tapi akhianyo namo tu ditarimo laweh. Encyclopedia of Religion 2nd ed (MacMillan)
     • Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, Muhammad (1703–92) Pandiri gerakan agamo revivalis jo reformis nan bapusek di Najd di Arabia tangah dan biaso disabuik sabagai Wahhabiyyah atau Wahhabi, The Princeton Encyclopeidia of Islamic Political Thought
     • Wahhabis Gerakan reformis / revivalis abaik ka-18 untuak rekonstruksi masyarakaik sacaro sosial. (The Oxford Dictionary of Islam)
     • MUWAHHIDUN Gerakan tasabuik dimulai dek surang ulama dari Najd (Arab Saudi), Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792), dididiak dek ulama (imam Islam) di tampek nan kini banamo Irak, Iran, dan Hijaz (Arabia barat). The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (2nd Edition) (MacMillan)
     • Wahhabiyya sabuah gerakan reformasi konservatif diluncuran di Arabia abaik kasalapan baleh dek Muhammad b.Abd al-Wahhab (1703-1792). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world (MacMillan)  <br/>• Wahhabism (Bahaso Arab: Wahhabiyya) Dinamoi manuruik namo tokoh pandirinyo, Muhammad ibn abd al-Wahhab (maningga tahun 1792), Wahhabisme adolah bantuak paliang pantiang dari reformasi Islam militan nan muncua di Jazirah Arab. [...] Iko maacu pado saparangkek doktrin jo praktik sarato gerakan sektarian {{sic | tadiri dari | hide = y |} dan panganuiknyo. Encyclopedia of Islam, InfoBase
     • Wahhabism. Wahhabisme maacu pado interpretasi konservatif Islam nan didirikan sabagai gerakan kabangkitan jo reformasi di Arabia abaik kasalapan baleh (Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World)
     • Wahabism Gerakan Islam nan bakambang pado abaik kasalapan baleh di Arabia tangah, maajakan ajaran Sunni nan pakek jo puritan. (A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed.), Oxford)
     • Wahhābī Gerakan Islam Wahhābī, juo diijo Wahābī, adolah bagian dari gerakan reformasi Muslim nan didirikan dek Muḥammad ibn'Abd al-Wahhāb pado abaik ka-18 di Najd, Arab tangah, dan diadopsi pado taun 1744 dek kaluarga Sa'ūd. (Encyclopedia Britannica)
    • Wahhābīya Gerakan Muslim ultra-konservatif dan puritan nan bapacik pado mazhab Ḥambali, walaupun maanggap dirinyo sabagai ghair muqallidīn, indak tunduak pado ciek mazhab, namun picayo baso inyo mambela nan bana. (The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford)

Pustaka[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Mark Juergensmeyer, Wade Clark Roof, ed (2011). "Encyclopedia of Global Religion". Encyclopedia of Global Religion. SAGE Publications. p. 1369. https://books.google.com/books?id=WwJzAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1369. 
  2. a b c d "Analysis Wahhabism". PBS Frontline. https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/saudi/analyses/wahhabism.html. Diakses pado 13 Mai 2014. "For more than two centuries, Wahhabism has been Saudi Arabia's dominant creed. It is an austere form of Sunni Islam that insists on a literal interpretation of the Quran. Wahhabis believe that all those who don't practice their form of Islam are heathens and enemies. Critics say that Wahhabism's rigidity has led it to misinterpret and distort Islam, pointing to extremists such as Osama bin Laden and the Taliban. Wahhabism's explosive growth began in the 1970s when Saudi charities started funding Wahhabi schools (madrassas) and mosques from Islamabad to Culver City, California." 
  3. Schwartz, Steven. "Saudi Arabia and the Rise of the Wahhabi Threat". http://www.meforum.org/535/saudi-arabia-and-the-rise-of-the-wahhabi-threat. Diakses pado 24 Juni 2014. 
  4. Kampeas, Ron. "Fundamentalist Wahhabism Comes to U.S.". Belief.net, Associate Press. http://www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/Islam/2001/12/Fundamentalist-Wahhabism-Comes-To-U-S.aspx. Diakses pado 27 Pebruari 2014. 
  5. a b c "Wahhabi". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/634039/Wahhabi. Diakses pado 12 Desember 2010. 
  6. a b c Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B. Tauris. p. vi. ISBN 9781845110802. https://books.google.com/?id=kQN6q16dIjAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=wahhabism#v=onepage&q=wahhabism&f=false. 
  7. Abu Mujahid & Haneef Oliver, Virus Wahabi, Toobagus Publishing, 2010, hal. 120 – 121.
  8. a b Valentine, Simon. Force and Fanaticism. Oxford University Press. pp. 16–17. https://books.google.com/books?id=B6mKCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA16. Diakses pado 24 Juli 2016. "The majority of mainstream Sunni and Shia Muslims worldwide would strongly disagree with the interpretation of Wahhabism outlined above. Rather than see Wahhabism as a reform movement, many Muslims would reject it in the strongest terms as firqa, a new faction, a vile sect." 
  9. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Commins-viv
  10. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Wiktorowicz, Quintan 2006 p.235
  11. DeLong-Bas, Natana J. (2004). Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad (edisi ke-First). Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 123–24. ISBN 0-19-516991-3. "Wahhabism has become [...] a blanket term for any Islamic movement that has an apparent tendency toward misogyny, militantism, extremism, or strict and literal interpretation of the Quran and hadith" 
  12. Commins, David (2009). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. ix. "Thus, the mission's devotees contend that 'Wahhabism' is a misnomer for their efforts to revive correct Islamic belief and practice. Instead of the Wahhabi label, they prefer either Salafi, one who follows the ways of the first Muslim ancestors (salaf), or muwahhid, one who professes God's unity." 
  13. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo GlasseIsl
  14. a b Esposito 2003, p. 333
  15. V. G. Julie Rajan Al Qaeda's Global Crisis: The Islamic State, Takfir and the Genocide of Muslims Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-317-64538-2 page 76
  16. Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 9780857731357. https://books.google.com/?id=SKf3AgAAQBAJ&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=wahhabi+nejd+thinly+populated#v=onepage&q=wahhabi%20nejd%20thinly%20populated&f=false. "The Wahhabi religious reform movement arose in Najd, the vast, thinly populated heart of Central Arabia." 
  17. "Wahhabi". GlobalSecurity.org. 27 April 2005. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 7 Mai 2005. https://web.archive.org/web/20050507090328/http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/gulf/wahhabi.htm. Diakses pado 10 Mai 2008. 
  18. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo lacey-glory
  19. Glasse, Cyril (2001). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 469. "A sect dominant in Saudi Arabia and Qatar, at the beginning of the 19th century it gained footholds in India, Africa, and elsewhere." 
  20. a b Izady, Mehrdad (2014) [1999]. "Demography of Religion in the Gulf". Mehrdad Izady. http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/GulfReligionGeneral_lg.png. 
  21. Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. pp. 61. ISBN 9781845112578. https://books.google.com/?id=OLvTNk75hUoC&pg=PA61&dq=the+financial+clout+of+Saudi+Arabia#v=onepage&q=the%20financial%20clout%20of%20Saudi%20Arabia&f=false. "... the financial clout of Saudi Arabia [that] had been amply demonstrated during the oil embargo against the United States, following the Arab-Israeli war of 1973. This show of international power, along with the nation's astronomical increase in wealth, allowed Saudi Arabia's puritanical, conservative Wahhabite faction to attain a preeminent position of strength in the global expression of Islam." 
  22. Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2005), The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists, Harper San Francisco, pp. 70–2.
  23. "What is Wahhabism? The reactionary branch of Islam said to be 'the main source of global terrorism' ".
  24. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo threat-define
  25. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Dillon-3-4
  26. Stephane Lacroix, Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith. Leiden University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, No. 21.
  27. (Salafism has been termed a hybridation between the teachings of Ibn Abdul-Wahhab and others which have taken place since the 1960s) Stephane Lacroix, Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith. Leiden University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, No. 21.
  28. GlobalSecurity.org Salafi Islam
  29. "Washington Post, For Conservative Muslims, Goal of Isolation a Challenge". https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/04/AR2006090401107_2.html. Diakses pado 13 Nopember 2014. 
  30. John L. Esposito. What Everyone Needs to Know About Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780199794133. https://books.google.com/books?id=2wSVQI3Ya2EC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Wahhabism&f=false. 
  31. Other sources give far lower numbers of Shia though they do not estimate the number of Wahhabi
    (15% of KSA is Shia. sources: Saudi Arabia's Shia press for rights| bbc|by Anees al-Qudaihi | 24 March 2009; and Council on Foreign Relations| Author: Lionel Beehner| 16 June 2006; Vali Nasr, Shia Revival, (2006) p. 236)
  32. Valentine, Simon. Force and Fanaticisim. Oxford. p. 17. https://books.google.ca/books?id=Rl9eCwAAQBAJ&pg=PT31&lpg=PT31&dq=similarly,+regularly+denounce+wahhabism&source=bl&ots=pKutZH6Z8b&sig=6ayRbudKUUPRinWnd5t1VZIIp1w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjVnq-t5IzXAhUk8IMKHZUcADUQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=similarly%2C%20regularly%20denounce%20wahhabism&f=false. Diakses pado 25 Oktober 2017. Offline, ulema, such as those at the prestigious Al-Azhar University in Cairo (the Oxford University of the Sunni Muslim World) similarly, regularly denounce wahhabism as 'a satanic faith which has led to division, debate, dishonesty and mistrust of muslims'.
  33. "European Parliament identifies Wahabi and Salafi roots of global terrorism ", (Dawn.com), 22 Juli 2013. Diakses pado 3 Agustus 2014.
  34. "Terrorism: Growing Wahhabi Influence in the United States". US GPO. 26 Juni 2003. http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-108shrg91326/pdf/CHRG-108shrg91326.pdf. "Journalists and experts, as well as spokespeople of the world, have said that Wahhabism is the source of the overwhelming majority of terrorist atrocities in today's world, from Morocco to Indonesia, via Israel, Saudi Arabia, Chechnya. Jon Kyl, US Senator for Arizona" 
  35. Partick Cockburn, The Rise of Islamic State: ISIS and the New Sunni Revolution. Verso 2014. p. 6
  36. Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. vi. "[T]he pivotal idea in Ibn Abd al-Wahhab's teaching determines whether one is a Muslim or an infidel. In his opinion, Muslims who disagreed with his definition of monotheism were not heretics, that is to say, misguided Muslims, but outside the pale of Islam altogether" 
  37. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Blanchard
  38. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Glasse-heretics
  39. Mouzahem, Haytham (20 April 2013). "Saudi Wahhabi Sheikh Calls on Iraq's Jihadists to Kill Shiites". al-monitor. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 24 Agustus 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140824095059/http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/04/wahhabi-sheikh-fatwa-iraq-kill-shiites-children-women.html. Diakses pado 18 Agustus 2014. 
  40. Rabasa, Angel; Benard, Cheryl (2004). "The Middle East: Cradle of the Muslim World". The Muslim World After 9/11. Rand Corporation. p. 103, note 60.. ISBN 0-8330-3712-9. 
  41. Howden, Daniel, "The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage ", 6 Agustus 2005. Diakses pado 21 Desember 2009.
  42. Finn, Helena Kane (8 October 2002). "Cultural Terrorism and Wahhabi Islam". http://www.cfr.org/world/cultural-terrorism-wahhabi-islam/p5234. Diakses pado 5 Agustus 2014. "It is the undisputed case that the Taliban justification for this travesty [the destruction of the Buddha statues at Bamiyan] can be traced to the Wahhabi indoctrination program prevalent in the Afghan refugee camps and Saudi-funded Islamic schools (madrasas) in Pakistan that produced the Taliban ... In Saudi Arabia itself, the destruction has focused on the architectural heritage of Islam's two holiest cities, Mecca and Medina, where Wahhabi religious foundations, with state support, have systematically demolished centuries-old mosques and mausolea, as well as hundreds of traditional Hijazi mansions and palaces." 
  43. Wahhabism: Understanding the Roots and Role Models of Islamic Extremism, by Zubair Qamar, condensed and edited by ASFA staff
  44. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Esposito3332
  45. "Allah". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9005770/Allah. Diakses pado 28 Mai 2008. 
  46. DeLong-Bas, Wahhabi Islam, 2004: 62
  47. Kabir, Nahid Afrose (1 January 2013) (dalam bahaso en). Young American Muslims: Dynamics of Identity. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 44. ISBN 9780748669936. https://books.google.com/books?id=EYqlBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA44&dq=Wahhabism+opposition+to+sunni&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiEssiBz-nQAhWmL8AKHXTdDAIQ6AEIJzAC. "Both Wahhabism and Salafism are very much opposed by the vast majority of Sunnis and also by Shiites" 
  48. Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 71. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=IYzGAAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Athari+islam&ots=wa0i7AaRa6&sig=WmxaQ58fGUNzTAA1XqYxQdSILLo#v=onepage&q=Athari%20&f=false. "Abdul-Wahhab was a proponent of Ijtihad, as were the leading reformers of the Salafi movement in Egypt." 
  49. a b Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo demo2

Bacoan lanjuik[suntiang | suntiang sumber]