Mazhab

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{{Mazhab (Arab: مذهبmadzhab, IPA: [ˈmaðhab], "caro pandang"; pl. مذاهب madzāhib, [maˈðaːhɪb]) adolah panggolongan caro pikia, pandapek, atau metode nan dipakai dalam marumuskan hukum Islam. Mazhab barado satingkek dibawah firkah (firqah; aliran, sekte, atau denominasi).[1] Istilah ko dapek marujuak ka baragam disiplin ilimu nan mampunyoi pandapek nan babeda. Dalam Islam, paliang indak dipakai dalam tigo hal, yaitu mazhab akidah atau teologi (madzahib i'tiqadiyyah), mazhab politik (madzahib siyasiyah), jo mazhab fiqih (madzahib fiqhiyyah).[2] Sabuah jalan pikia dapek dikatokan sabagai sabuah mazhab kok alah mampunyoi ciri khas nan dibantuak malalui proses panjang hinggo tacapai saparangkek prinsip jo kaidah nan manjadi padoman nan jaleh batasan-batasannyo. Umumnyo mazhab marujuak pado tokoh alim ulama nan manaruko jalan pikianyo.[3][4]

Dalam satiok aliran dalam Islam dapek mampunyoi mazhabnyo surang nan babeda-beda. Pado aliran dalam Islam nan paliang gadang, Sunni, ado ampek mazhab gadang yaitu Hanafi, Maliki, Syafii, jo Hambali.[5] Bakasinambungan muncua sajak mulo abaik kasambilan masehi dan mulai batua-batua tagak sabagai mazhab nan babeda pado abaik ka-12 masehi.[6][5] Pado umumnyo, satiok mazhab ko mampunyoi wilayah sebanyo surang. Samantaro dalam aliran Syiah, ado tigo mazhab gadang, yaitu Imam Duobaleh, Zaidi, jo Ismaili nan sangaik babeda dari mazhab nan ado dalam Sunni.[7][8] Santano Ibadi, marupokan aliran nan juo mazhab tapisah dari Sunni jo Syiah.[5]

Istilah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pasebaran mazhab-mazhab fiqih di saluruah dunia.

Mazhab barasa dari bahaso Arab: مذهبmadzhab, nan aratinyo jalan atau tampek pai. Dalam bantuak jamak, disabuik مذاهب mazhahib. Sacaro bahaso, mazhab dapek diaratikan sabagai tampek nan dilalui untuak mamahami hukum dalam Islam.[1][4]

Sijarah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Hukum Islam atau fikih dulunyo

"Ancient" schools[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

According to John Burton, “modern research shows” that fiqh was first “regionally organized” with “considerable disagreement and variety of view”. In the second century of Islam, schools of fiqh were noted for the loyalty of their jurists to the legal practices of their local communities, whether Mecca, Kufa, Basra, Syria, etc.[9] (Egypt's school in Fustat was a branch of Medina's school of law and followed such practices—up until the end of the 8th century—as basing verdict on one single witness (not two) and the oath of the claimant. Its principal jurist in the second half of the 8th century was al-Layth b. Sa'd.)[Note 1] Al-Shafi‘i writes that, `every capital of the Muslims is a seat of learning whose people follow the opinion of one of their countrymen in most of his teachings`.[13][14] The "real basis" of legal doctrine in these "ancient schools" was not a body of reports of Muhammad's sayings, doings, silent approval (the ahadith) or even those of his Companions, but the `living tradition` of the school as "expressed in the consensus of the scholars", according to Joseph Schacht.[15]

Al-Shafi‘i and after[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

It has been asserted that madhahib were consolidated in the 9th and 10th centuries as a means of excluding dogmatic theologians, government officials and non-Sunni sects from religious discourse.[16] Historians have differed regarding the times at which the various schools emerged. One interpretation is that Sunni Islam was initially[bilo?] split into four groups: the Hanafites, Malikites, Shafi'ites and Zahirites.[17] Later, the Hanbalites and Jarirites developed two more schools; then various dynasties effected the eventual exclusion of the Jarirites;[18] eventually, the Zahirites were also excluded when the Mamluk Sultanate established a total of four independent judicial positions, thus solidifying the Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali schools.[16] During the era of the Islamic Gunpowders, the Ottoman Empire reaffirmed the official status of these four schools as a reaction to Shi'ite Persia.[19] Some are of the view that Sunni jurisprudence falls into two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i ("people of opinions", emphasizing scholarly judgment and reason) and Ahl al-Hadith ("people of traditions", emphasizing strict interpretation of scripture).[20]

10th century Shi'ite scholar Ibn al-Nadim named eight groups: Maliki, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Zahiri, Imami Shi'ite, Ahl al-Hadith, Jariri and Kharijite.[18][21] In the 12th century Jariri and Zahiri schools were absorbed by the Shafi'i school.[22] Ibn Khaldun defined only three Sunni madhahib: Hanafi, Zahiri, and one encompassing the Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools as existing initially,[23][24] noting that by the 14th-century historian the Zahiri school had become extinct,[25][26] only for it to be revived again in parts of the Muslim world by the mid-20th century.[27][28][29]

Historically, the fiqh schools were often in political and academic conflict with one another, vying for favor with the ruling government in order to have their representatives appointed to legislative and especially judiciary positions.[19] Geographer and historian Al-Muqaddasi once satirically categorized competing madhahib with contrasting personal qualities: Hanafites, highly conscious of being hired for official positions, appeared deft, well-informed, devout and prudent; Malikites, dull and obtuse, confined themselves to observance of prophetic tradition; Shafi'ites were shrewd, impatient, understanding and quick-tempered; Zahirites haughty, irritable, loquacious and well-to-do; Shi'ites, entrenched and intractable in old rancor, enjoyed riches and fame; and Hanbalites, anxious to practice what they preached, were charitable and inspiring.[30] While such descriptions were almost assuredly humorous in nature, ancient differences were less to do with actual doctrinal opinions than with maneuvering for adherents and influence.[rujuakan?]

Modern era[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

The transformations of Islamic legal institutions in the modern era have had profound implications for the madhhab system. Legal practice in most of the Muslim world has come to be controlled by government policy and state law, so that the influence of the madhhabs beyond personal ritual practice depends on the status accorded to them within the national legal system. State law codification commonly utilized the methods of takhayyur (selection of rulings without restriction to a particular madhhab) and talfiq (combining parts of different rulings on the same question). Legal professionals trained in modern law schools have largely replaced traditional ulema as interpreters of the resulting laws. Global Islamic movements have at times drawn on different madhhabs and at other times placed greater focus on the scriptural sources rather than classical jurisprudence. The Hanbali school, with its particularly strict adherence to the Quran and hadith, has inspired conservative currents of direct scriptural interpretation by the Salafi and Wahhabi movements.[31] In the 20th century many Islamic jurists began to assert their intellectual independence from traditional schools of jurisprudence.[32] Examples of the latter approach include networks of Indonesian ulema and Islamic scholars residing in Muslim-minority countries, who have advanced liberal interpretations of Islamic law.[31]

Ragam mazhab[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. a b "The Major Branches Of Islam". WorldAtlas (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diakses tanggal 2018-09-28. 
  2. Jauhar Ridloni Marzuq (13 August 2015). Inilah Islam. Elex Media Komputindo. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-602-02-6706-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=yE5JDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA173. 
  3. "Apa Itu Madzhab Fiqih?".  Dari website www.MediaMuslim.info. Sumber rujukan: Al Madkhal Ila Dirasatil Madarisi Wal Madzahibil Fiqhiyyah, oleh DR. Umar Sulaiman Al Asyqar
  4. a b "Pengertian Mazhab Dan Perkembangannya". Emir (dalam bahasa Inggris). 2020-04-14. Diakses tanggal 2020-08-09. 
  5. a b c Rabb, Intisar A. (2009). "Fiqh". di dalam John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001. ISBN 9780195305135. 
  6. Hussin, Iza (2014). "Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence". di dalam Emad El-Din Shahin. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199739356.001.0001. ISBN 9780199739356. 
  7. Calder, Norman (2009). "Law. Legal Thought and Jurisprudence". di dalam John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t236/e0473. 
  8. Vikør, Knut S. (2014). "Sharīʿah". di dalam Emad El-Din Shahin. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. http://bridgingcultures.neh.gov/muslimjourneys/items/show/226. Diakses pado 3 September 2014. 
  9. Burton, Islamic Theories of Abrogation, 1990: p.13
  10. J. Schacht, The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1950), p. 9
  11. R.G. Khoury, "Al-Layth Ibn Sa'd (94/713-175/791), grand maître et mécène de l’Egypte, vu à travers quelques documents islamiques anciens", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 40, 1981, p. 189–202
  12. Mathieu Tillier, "Les “premiers” cadis de Fusṭāṭ et les dynamiques régionales de l’innovation judiciaire (750-833)", Annales Islamologiques, 45 (2011), p. 214–218
  13. Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 246. 
  14. Shafi'i. Kitab al-Umm vol. vii. p. 148. Kitab Ikhtilaf Malid wal-Shafi'i. 
  15. Schacht, Joseph (1959) [1950]. The Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Oxford University Press. p. 98. 
  16. a b "Law, Islamic". Encyclopedia.com. Diakses tanggal 13 March 2012. 
  17. Mohammad Sharif Khan and Mohammad Anwar Saleem, Muslim Philosophy And Philosophers, pg. 34. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994.
  18. a b Christopher Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 178. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997.
  19. a b Chibli Mallat, Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, pg. 116. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-923049-5
  20. Murtada Mutahhari, The Role of Ijtihad in Legislation, Al-Tawhid volume IV, No.2, Publisher: Islamic Thought Foundation
  21. Devin J. Stewart, THE STRUCTURE OF THE FIHRIST: IBN AL-NADIM AS HISTORIAN OF ISLAMIC LEGAL AND THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS, International Journal of Middle East Studies, v.39, pg.369-387, Cambridge University Press, 2007
  22. Crone, Patricia (2013). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 498. https://books.google.ca/books?id=q1I0pcrFFSUC&pg=PA498&dq=zahiri+absorbed+princeton&hl=en&sa=X&ei=QnVTVaLpOo-gyQSNw4CwBg&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=zahiri%20absorbed%20princeton&f=false. Diakses pado 13 Mai 2015. 
  23. Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 5. Trns. Wolfgang Behn, intro. Camilla Adang. Volume three of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419
  24. Meinhaj Hussain, A New Medina, The Legal System, Grande Strategy, January 5th, 2012
  25. Wolfgang, Behn (1999). The Zahiris. BRILL. p. 178. https://books.google.ca/books?id=j_OIhpI9jfEC&pg=PA178&dq=ibn+khaldun+zahiri&hl=en&sa=X&ei=c_9PVevPA8-KyATczoGQDg&ved=0CDAQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=ibn%20khaldun%20zahiri&f=false. Diakses pado 11 Mai 2015. 
  26. Berkey, Jonathon (2003). The Formation of Islam. Cambridge University Press. p. 216. https://books.google.ca/books?id=mLV6lo4mvj0C&pg=PA216&dq=khaldun+zahiri&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lfRPVbKrI5KoyATonYD4Cg&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=khaldun%20zahiri&f=false. Diakses pado 11 Mai 2015. 
  27. Daniel W. Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought: Vol. 5 of Cambridge Middle East Studies, pgs. 28 and 32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 9780521653947
  28. M. Mahmood, The Code of Muslim Family Laws, pg. 37. Pakistan Law Times Publications, 2006. 6th ed.
  29. Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, pg. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 9781405178488
  30. Louis Massignon, The Passion of al-Hallaj: Mystic and Martyr of Islam. Trans. Herbert W. Mason. Pg. 130. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
  31. a b Hussin, Iza (2014). "Sunni Schools of Jurisprudence". di dalam Emad El-Din Shahin. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref:oiso/9780199739356.001.0001. ISBN 9780199739356. 
  32. Messick, Brinkley; Kéchichian, Joseph A. (2009). "Fatwā. Process and Function". di dalam John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/print/opr/t236/e0243. 


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