Salafi

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Musajik Salafi di Payyanur, India.

Gerakan Salafi atau Salafiyah adolah gerakan pambaharu [1] nan dianggap ultra konservatif[2] dalam Islam Sunni[3] nan mulai bakambang di Jazirah Arab pado paruah partamo abaik ka 18.[4] Gerakan iko mamakai metode pangajaran syarak Islam manuruik generasi para salaf, yaitu tigo generasi partamo sasudah Nabi Muhammad. Generasi nan dimukasuikan adolah generasi para sahabaik, sasudahnyo (murid para sahabaik), jo sasudahnyo (murid dari murid para sahabaik).

Ajaran Salafi bapusaik pado konsep dimano manjalankan kahidupan dunia kiniko sasuai jo nan diajaan pado maso nan lalu, utamonyo dalam hal baragamo.[5] Salafi manolak hal-hal baru dalam baragamo atau bid'ah, jo mandukuang implementasi hukum syarak Islam.[6] Gerakan ikuik acok dibagi manjadi tigo kategori dek para pangamaik, manuruik katalibatannyo dalam papolitikan: kalompok paliang gadang yaitu kalompok puritan, nan manjauhi urusan politik; kaduo yaitu kalompok Salafi Haraki (Salafi pergerakan atau aktivis), nan talibaik dalam urusan politik; katigo kalompok nan paliang ketek yaitu Salafi Jihadi.[6] Dalam urusan hukum fiqih, Salafi tabagi di antaro kalompok nan bahukum pado putusan/pandapaik hukum independen (ijtihad), manulak kapatuhan ketat (taqlid) kapado ciek dari ampek mazhab fiqih Islam Sunni, jo kalompok lainnyo nan tetap taguah pado hal iko.[7]

Mayoritas Salafi di Jazirah Arab tingga di Qatar, Uni Emirat Arab, jo Arab Saudi.[8] 46.87% panduduak Qatar[8] jo 44.8% of panduduak Uni Emirat Arab adolah Salafi.[8] 5.7% panduduak Bahrain adolah Salafi sarato 2.17% panduduak Kuwait adolah Salafi.[8] Salafi adolah minoritas paliang dominan di Arab Saudi.[9] Ado 4 juta panduduak nan salafi di Arab Saudi sajak 22.9% Saudis adolah Salafi (tapusaik di Nejed).[8] Salafi kini lah muloi ditarimo di Turki.[10]

Salafi acok digambarkan sinonim jo Wahabi, tapi bagi urang salafi istilah Wahabi dianggap mahino.[11] Di lain hal, ado nan maangap Salafi ko adolah hibrida Wahabi jo gerakan lain nan sasudah 1960-an.[12] Salafi alah dikaitkan jo pahamanan nan tekstual, ketat, jo puritan (pamurnian) tahadok Islam - jo, khususnyo dek urang di Barat, yaitu pado Salafi Jihadis nan mandukuang jihad malawan musuah Islam sabagai gambaran asali tantang Islam.[13]

Para akademisi jo sijarawan mamakai istilah "Salafi" untuak manunjuakan "aliran pamikiran nan muncua pado paruah kaduo abaik ka 19 sabagai reaksi tahadok panyebaran pamikiran Eropa" dan "barusaho untuk manggali akar modernitas pado paradaban Islam."[14][15] Namun Salafi kini labiah mangikuti pamahaman Ibnu Taimiyah jo muridnyo Ibnu Katsir[16] daripado figur abaik 19 sarupo Muhammad Abduh, Jamaluddin al-Afghani, jo Rashid Rida.[17][18]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 275. https://books.google.com/books?id=6VeCWQfVNjkC&pg=PA275&dq=salafi+movement+reform&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=salafi%20movement%20reform&f=false. Diakses pado 5 Desember 2015. 
  2. Naylor, Phillip (15 January 2015). North Africa Revised. University of Texas Press. https://books.google.com/books?id=SSUKBgAAQBAJ&pg=PT302&dq=salafi+movement+ultra-conservative&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=salafi%20movement%20ultra-conservative&f=false. Diakses pado 5 Desember 2015. 
  3. Bernard Haykel (2009). "Salafī Groups". di dalam John L. Esposito. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-1244. 
  4. Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (2008-05-12) (dalam bahaso en). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes: A Political, Social, and Military History]. ABC-CLIO. pp. 975. ISBN 9781851098422. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YAd8efHdVzIC&pg=PA975&dq=salafism+first+half+18th+century&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiB4-7k_M_WAhXoKMAKHXRWCUs4ChDoAQhCMAU#v=onepage&q=salafism%20first%20half%2018th%20century&f=false. 
  5. Turner, J. (2014-08-26) (dalam bahaso en). Religious Ideology and the Roots of the Global Jihad: Salafi Jihadism and International Order. Springer. ISBN 9781137409577. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-EdvBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT73&dq=Salafist+doctrine&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiXuYbB68_WAhUkKcAKHaiQBow4FBDoAQgsMAE#v=onepage&q=Salafist%20doctrine&f=false. 
  6. a b "Salafism: Politics and the puritanical ", The Economist, 27 Juni 2015. Diakses pado 29 Juni 2015.
  7. Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1908224125. 
  8. a b c d e "Demography of Religion in the Gulf". Mehrdad Izady. 12 Agustus 2013. http://gulf2000.columbia.edu/images/maps/GulfReligionGeneral_lg.png. 
  9. "The Shiʻis of Saudi Arabia". pp. 56–57. https://www.google.com/search?q=a+state+of+religious+minorities%2C+among+which+the+Wahhabis+represent+the+dominant+minority&btnG=Search+Books&tbm=bks&tbo=1&gws_rd=ssl. 
  10. "Salafism Infiltrates Turkish Religious Discourse ", Middle East Institute.
  11. Contohnyo, kalompok Ahlu Hadits nan alah aktif sajak abaik kak 19 di parbatehan Pakistan jo Afghanistan ... walau dicap "Wahabi' dek musuahnyo, ... labiah sanang manyabuik diri sabagai "Salafi"" (from The Failure of Political Islam, by Olivier Roy, translated by Carol Volk, Harvard University Press, 1994, pp. 118–9)
  12. Stephane Lacroix, Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith. Leiden University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, #21.
  13. Dr Abdul-Haqq Baker, Extremists in Our Midst: Confronting Terror, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, Templat:Page needed
  14. Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781845112578. https://books.google.com/books?id=OLvTNk75hUoC. Diakses pado 28 Januari 2014. 
  15. Misalnyo: "Salafi mulonyo pado patangahan hinggo akhia abaik ka 19 sabagai gerakan intelektual di Universitas Al-Azhar, dipimpin dek Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905), Jamaluddin al-Afghani (1839–1897) jo Rashid Rida (1865–1935)." from Understanding the Origins of Wahhabism and Salafism, by Trevor Stanley. Terrorism Monitor Volume 3, Issue 14. July 15, 2005
  16. Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 page 632
  17. Jihad By Gilles Kepel, Anthony F. Roberts. Books.google.com. 24 Pebruari 2006. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8. https://books.google.com/?id=OLvTNk75hUoC&dq=islamism&printsec=frontcover. Diakses pado 18 April 2010. 
  18. Haykel, Bernard. "Sufism and Salafism in Syria". 11 May 2007. Syria Comment. http://www.joshualandis.com/blog/sufism-and-salafism-in-syria-by-itzchak-weismann/. Diakses pado 22 Mai 2013. ""The Salafis of the Muhammad Abduh variety no longer exist, as far as I can tell, and certainly are not thought of by others as Salafis since this term has been appropriated/co-opted fully by Salafis of the Ahl al-Hadith/Wahhabi variety.""