Urang Arab

Wikipedia Minangkabau - Lubuak aka tapian ilimu
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian

asir

Urang Arab
عَرَب ('arab) (Arab)
Total populasi
lk. 450 juta (est. 2011)[1]
Kawasan jo populasi nan signifikan
 Liga Arab
430.000.000[2][3]
 Brazil Dipakiroan 12–13 juta jiwa saindaknyo badarah campuran Arab[4][5][lower-alpha 1]
 Parancih 3,3[7] inggo 5,5[8] juta jiwa bakaturunan Afrika Utara (Arab atau Berber)[9]
 Indonesia
 Turki 5.000.000[15][16][17][18][19]
 Argentina 4.500.000 saindaknyo bakaturunan campuran Arab[20]
 Amerika Sarikat 3.700.000[21]
 Venezuela 1.600.000[22]
 Kolombia 1.500.000[23]
 Iran 1.500.000[24]
 Meksiko 1.500.000[25][26]
 Chad 1.536.000 (est.)[27]
 Spanyol 1.350.000[28][29]
 Jerman 1.155.390[30][31]
 Chile 800.000[32][33][34][35]
 Kanada 750.925[36]
 Italia 680.000[37]
 Baritania Rayo 500.000[38]
 Australia 500.000[39]
 Ekuador 250.000 [40]
 Honduras 275.000 [41][42]
 Belgia 800.000 (600.000 dari Maroko)[rujuakan?]
 Balando 480.000–613.800[43]
 Swedia 425.000[rujuakan?]
 Denmark 121.000[rujuakan?]
 El Salvador Labiah dari 100.000[44][45][46][47][48]
 Japang kurang dari 100.000[49]
Bahaso
Arabic
Agamo
Dominan: Islam
(Sunni · Syiah · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawi)
Minoritas gadang: Kristen
(Ortodoks Yunani · Katolik Yunani)
Minoritas ketek: Druze · Baha'i
Maso daulu: Politeisme Arabia pra-Islam
Kalompok etnis takaik
Urang-urang nan babahaso Afroasiatik lainnyo, kusuihnyo urang Semitik sarupo urang Asyiria jo urang Yahudi[50][50][51][52][53][54][55]
Catatan kaki
a Etnis Arab indak buliah disamoan jo etnis non-Arab nan samo-samo panduduak asali dari dunia Arab.[55]
b Indak sadonyo urang Arab adolah Muslim jo indak sadonyo Muslim adolah urang Arab. Saurang Arab dapek sajo mamaluak agamo tatantu atau indak baagamo.
c Identitas Arab didefinisikan sacaro tapisah dari identitas agamo.

Urang Arab (/ˈærəbz/;[56] Arab: عَرَب‎, ISO 233 ‘arab; Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarab]  ( dengar)) adolah panduduak nan manampati wilayah nan disabuik dunia Arab, nan umumnyo adolah panduduak nagara-nagara Arab di Asia Barat, Afrika Utara, Tanduak Afrika, sarato di kapulauan Samudera Hindia sabalah barat.[57] Salain itu tadapek juo komunitas diaspora dalam jumalah nan cukuik banyak di babagai nagara di saluruah dunia.[58]

Namo Arab patamo kali tasabuik pado patangahan abaik kasambilan Sabalun Masihi, sabagai banso nan manatap di sabalah timur jo selatan jo Suriah inggo ka bagian utara Jazirah Arabia.[59] Urang-urang Arab maso itu agaknyo barado di bawah kakuasoan (manjadi vasal) karajaan Asyiria Baru (911–612 SM), sarato karajaan-karajaan salanjuiknyo sarupo Babilonia Baru (626–539 SM), Akhamenia (539–332 SM), Seleukia, jo Parthia.[60] Karajaan-karajaan Arab, nan paliang tanamo iolah Bani Ghassan jo Bani Lakhm, muloi muncua di bagian selatan Gurun Suriah pado patangahan abaik katigo Masihi jo sataruihnyo, yaitu di maso-maso patangahan inggo akia dari pamarentahan kakaisaran Romawi jo Sassania.[61]

Sabalun muloi tasebanyo banso Arab pado maso Khulafaur Rasyidin (632-661 M), istilah "Arab" marujuak kapado satiok banso Semitik nan masiah nomadik atau nan alah manatap di wilayah Jazirah Arabia, Gurun Suriah, sarato bagian utara jo ilia lambah Mesopotamia.[62] Kini ko, nan disabuik "Arab" alah maliputi jumalah gadang panduduak asali nan iduik di babagai nagara di dunia Arab, dek alah tajadi papindahan banso jo bahaso Arab ka wilayah nan labiah laweh pado maso awa panaklukan Muslim di abaik ka-7 jo ka-8, nan balanjuik jo proses Arabisasi kapado para panduduak satampek.[63] Urang-urang Arab mandirian kakhalifahan-kakhalifahan Rasyidah, Umayyah, Abbasiyyah jo Fathimiyyah, nan bateh-batehnyo mancapai selatan Parancih di barat, di Cino di timur, Anatolia di utara, jo Sudan di selatan. Iko salah satu karajaan darek tagadang dalam sijarah.[64] Di awa abaik ka-20, Parang Dunia Patamo manandoi runtuahnyo Kasultanan Usmaniyyah, nan alah manguasoi sabagian gadang dunia Arab satalah manaklukkan Kasultanan Mamluk pado 1517.[65] Puncaknyo adolah kakalahan jo pambubaran Kasultanan Usmaniyyah, lalu tabagi-bagi bakeh wilayahnyo manjadi nagara-nagara Arab moderen.[66] Manyusul balakunyo Protokol Aleksandria pado 1944, mako batagaklah Liga Arab pado 22 Maret 1945.[67] Piagam Liga Arab mandukuang prinsip tanah aia Arab, namun tatok maakui kadaulatan nagara-nagara anggotanyo.[68]

Kini ko, urang-urang Arab tarutamo mandiami 22 nagara-nagara Arab nan anggota Liga Arab: Aljazair, Bahrain, Komoro, Djibouti, Mesir, Irak, Yordania, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Maroko, Oman, Palestina, Qatar, Arab Saudi, Somalia, Sudan, Suriah, Tunisia, Uni Emirat Arab, jo Yaman. Dunia Arab mambantang sakita 13 juta km2, dari Samudra Atlantik di barat ka Lauik Arab di timur, jo dari Lauik Mediterania di utara ka Tanduak Afrika jo Samudra Hindia di tenggara. Di lua bateh-bateh Liga Nagara-nagara Arab, urang-urang Arab dapek ditamuan juo sabagai diaspora global.[57] Ikatan nan mangikek sasamo urang Arab adolah etnis, bahaso, budayo, sijarah, identitas, nasionalisme, geografis, jo politik.[69] Banso Arab punyo adaik, bahaso, arsitektur, seni, sastra, musik, tari, media, masakan, pakaian, masarakaik, olahraga, jo mitologi kusuihnyo surang.[70] Jumalah total urang Arab dipakiroan mancapai 450 juta.[1]

Urang-urang Arab marupoan kalompok nan baragam kok dicaliak dari afiliasi jo praktik kaagamoannyo. Pado maso pra-Islam, kabanyakan urang Arab manganuik politeisme. Babarapo suku alah mamaluak agamo Kristen atau Yahudi, jo babarapo urang nan disabuik hanif maamalan suatu bantuak monoteisme.[71] Kini ko, labiah kurang 93% urang Arab adolah panganuik Islam,[72] sarato cukuik banyak pulo minoritas Kristen.[73] Arab Muslim tarutamo maikuik aliran Sunni, Syiah, Ibadi, jo Alawi. Arab Kristen umumnyo maikuik salah satu Gareja Kristen Timur, sarupo Gareja Ortodoks Oriental atau salah satu Gareja Katolik Timur.[74] Agamo minoritas nan labiah ketek lai adolah Baha'i jo Druze.

Banso Arab alah banyak mampangaruahi jo manyumbang dalam babagai bidang, tarutamo seni jo arsitektur, bahaso, pilsapaik, mitologi, etika, sastra, politik, bisnis, musik, tari, bioskop, kedokteran, sains jo teknologi[75] sapanjang sijarah kuno jo modern paradaban manusia.

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. a b Margaret Kleffner Nydell Understanding Arabs: A Guide For Modern Times, Intercultural Press, 2005, ISBN 1931930252, page xxiii, 14
  2. total population 450 million, CIA Factbook estimates an Arab population of 450 million, see article text.
  3. "World Arabic Language Day | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". Unesco.org. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2017. 
  4. Sarruf, Marina. "Brazil - Brasil - BRAZZIL - News from Brazil - Arabs: They are 12 Million in Brazil - Brazilian Immigration - September 2004". www.brazzil.com. Diakses tanggal 2019-04-28. 
  5. Luxner, Larry; Engle, Douglas (September–October 2005). "The Arabs of Brazil". Aramco World. 
  6. http://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv63405.pdf
  7. "France's crisis of national identity". The Independent. 25 November 2009. Diakses tanggal 2019-01-30. 
  8. "To count or not to count". The Economist. 26 March 2009. ISSN 0013-0613. Diakses tanggal 2019-01-30 – via The Economist. 
  9. By (29 January 2008). "French-Arabs battle stereotypes - Entertainment News, French Cinema, Media". Variety. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 21 February 2010. Diakses tanggal 22 August 2010. 
  10. "The world's successful diasporas". World Business. 2007-04-03. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2008-04-01. Diakses tanggal 2019-04-25. 
  11. Shihab, Alwi (2003-12-21). "Hadramaut dan Para Kapiten Arab". Republika. Diakses tanggal 2015-03-25. 
  12. Leo Suryadinata (2008). Ethnic Chinese in Contemporary Indonesia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 29. ISBN 978-981-230-835-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=UFNKQcvGNSAC&pg=PA29. 
  13. "Mengenal Keturunan Nabi Muhammad SAW di Indonesia". Berita Berimbang Untuk Muslim Nusantara (dalam bahasa Indonesian). MusliModerat. Diakses tanggal 2019-04-23. 
  14. Subandoyo, Arbi. "Mereka yang Habib dan yang Bukan Habib". Tirto.Id (dalam bahasa Indonesian). Diakses tanggal 2019-04-23. 
  15. (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response". UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response (dalam bahasa Inggris). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 22 January 2018. 
  16. Kaya, Ibrahim (2009). "The Iraqi Refugee Crisis and Turkey: a Legal Outlook". cadmus.eui.eu. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2017. 
  17. "The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Turkey". www.washingtoninstitute.org. 
  18. "Turkey's demographic challenge". www.aljazeera.com. 
  19. "UNHCR Syria Regional Refugee Response/ Turkey". UNHCR. 31 December 2015. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 March 2018. Diakses tanggal 17 January 2016. 
  20. "Inmigración sirio-libanesa en Argentina" (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Fearab.org.ar. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 20 June 2010. Diakses tanggal 13 April 2010. 
  21. "Demographics". Arab American Institute. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2017. 
  22. "Abdel el-Zabayar: From Parliament to the Frontlines". The Daily Beast. 
  23. "Las mil y una historias" (dalam bahasa Spanish). semana.com. 2004. There is an estimated population of 1,500,000 Arabs in Colombia.
  24. "Iran". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 3 February 2012. Diakses tanggal 3 August 2013. 
  25. "Arabs Making Their Mark in Latin America: Generations of Immigrants in Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico | Al Jadid Magazine". www.aljadid.com. 
  26. Ben Cahoon. "World Statesmen.org". World Statesmen.org. Diakses tanggal 17 September 2011. 
  27. "Chad". Diakses tanggal 3 April 2019. 
  28. "Los musulmanes en España superan los 1,8 millones". www.europapress.es (dalam bahasa Spanyol). 30 March 2015. Diakses tanggal 25 April 2017. 
  29. Redaction (9 October 2012). "La cifra de musulmanes en España alcanza los 1,6 millones, de los que casi un tercio viven en Cataluña". www.alertadigital.com (dalam bahasa Spanyol). Diakses tanggal 25 April 2017. 
  30. "Anzahl der Ausländer in Deutschland nach Herkunftsland in den Jahren 2015 und 2016". statista (dalam bahasa German). 
  31. "Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit" (PDF). Statistisches Bundesamt (dalam bahasa German). 20 June 2017. Diakses tanggal 11 March 2018. 
  32. (Spanyol) En Chile viven unas 700.000 personas de origen árabe y de ellas 500.000 son descendientes de emigrantes palestinos que llegaron a comienzos del siglo pasado y que constituyen la comunidad de ese origen más grande fuera del mundo árabe. Archived 18 March 2012 di Wayback Machine.
  33. "Arabs In The Andes? Chile, The Unlikely Long-Term Home Of A Large Palestinian Community". International Business Times. 31 October 2013. 
  34. "Chile: Palestinian refugees arrive to warm welcome". Adnkronos.com. 7 April 2003. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 19 September 2011. Diakses tanggal 17 September 2011. 
  35. "500,000 descendientes de primera y segunda generación de palestinos en Chile". Laventana.casa.cult.cu. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 22 July 2009. Diakses tanggal 17 September 2011. 
  36. "Canadian Arab Institute :: 750,925 Canadians Hail from Arab Lands". www.canadianarabinstitute.org. 
  37. Dati ISTAT 2016, counting only immigrants from the Arab world. "Cittadini stranieri in Italia - 2016". tuttitalia.it. 
  38. Anthony McRoy. "The British Arab". National Association of British Arabs. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 3 January 2015. Diakses tanggal 17 April 2012. 
  39. "australianarab.org/about-us". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 30 October 2016. 
  40. "revistas.ucm.es/index.php/ANQE/article/viewFile/ANQE9797110057A/3864". 
  41. "The Arabs of Honduras". Saudi Aramco World. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 9 October 2014. Diakses tanggal 8 April 2014. 
  42. "The Arabs of Honduras". Saudiaramcoworld.com. 27 June 1936. Diakses tanggal 17 September 2011. 
  43. "Dutch media perceived as much more biased than Arabic media – Media & Citizenship Report conducted by University of Utrecht" (PDF), Utrecht University, 10 September 2010, diarsipkan dari versi asli (PDF) tanggal 28 February 2019, diakses tanggal 29 November 2010 
  44. {{citeweb |url=https://newsvideo.su/video/10798241
  45. {{citeweb |url=http://theidentitychef.com/2009/09/06/lebanese-diaspora-worldwide-geographical-distribution
  46. Zielger, Matthew. "El Salvador: Central American Palestine of the West?". The Daily Star. Diakses tanggal 27 May 2015. 
  47. {{citeweb |url=https://latinx.com/discover/aj-plus-the-palestinians-of-el-salvador/ Archived 13 November 2019 di Wayback Machine.
  48. {{citeweb |url=https://www.chicagotribune.com/news/ct-xpm-2004-03-21-0403210538-story,amp.html
  49. "Muslim population in Japan increases with Islamic demands". DailySabah. Diakses tanggal 2019-08-26. 
  50. a b Shen, P; Lavi, T; Kivisild, T; Chou, V; Sengun, D; Gefel, D; Shpirer, I; Woolf, E et al. (2004). "Reconstruction of patrilineages and matrilineages of Samaritans and other Israeli populations from Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA sequence variation". Human Mutation 24 (3): 248–60. doi:10.1002/humu.20077. PMID 15300852. http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Shen2004.pdf. 
  51. Wade, Nicholas (9 June 2010). "Studies Show Jews' Genetic Similarity". New York Times. 
  52. Nebel, Almut; Filon, Dvora; Weiss, Deborah A.; Weale, Michael; Faerman, Marina; Oppenheim, Ariella; Thomas, Mark G. (2000). "High-resolution Y chromosome haplotypes of Israeli and Palestinian Arabs reveal geographic substructure and substantial overlap with haplotypes of Jews". Human Genetics 107 (6): 630–41. doi:10.1007/s004390000426. PMID 11153918. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/tcga/tcgapdf/Nebel-HG-00-IPArabs.pdf. 
  53. "Jews Are The Genetic Brothers Of Palestinians, Syrians, And Lebanese". Sciencedaily.com. 9 May 2000. Diakses tanggal 12 April 2013. 
  54. Atzmon, G; Hao, L; Pe'Er, I; Velez, C; Pearlman, A; Palamara, PF; Morrow, B; Friedman, E et al. (2010). "Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry". American Journal of Human Genetics 86 (6): 850–59. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.015. PMID 20560205. 
  55. a b Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Tadmouri2014
  56. "Arabs – Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org (dalam bahasa Inggris). 
  57. a b Frishkopf, edited by Michael (2010). Music and media in the Arab world (edisi ke-1st). Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 978-9774162930. 
  58. Bureš, Jaroslav (2008). Main characteristic and development trends of migration in the Arab world. Prague: Institute of International Relations. ISBN 978-8086506715. 
  59. Myers, E. A. (11 February 2010). The Ituraeans and the Roman Near East: Reassessing the Sources. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 9781139484817. https://books.google.com/books?id=-cRrGQ8bIAkC. 
  60. * "Arab people". Encyclopædia Britannica (dalam bahasa Inggris). 
    • Ruthven, Albert Hourani ; with a new afterword by Malise (2010). A history of the Arab peoples (edisi ke-1st Harvard Press pbk.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674058194. 
    • "HISTORY OF MIGRATION". Historyworld.net. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2017. 
    • "Untitled Document". people.umass.edu. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 3 September 2016. 
    • "History of the Arabs (book)". Historyworld.net. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2017. 
    • Bernard Ellis Lewis; Buntzie Ellis Churchill (2008). Islam: The Religion and the People. Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 137. https://www.google.com/books?id=IVyMAvW9slYC&pg=PA137#v=onepage&q&f=false. Diakses pado 21 Agustus 2017. "At the time of the Prophet's birth and mission, the Arabic language was more or less confined to Arabia, a land of deserts, sprinkled with oases. Surrounding it on land on every side were the two rival empires of Persia and Byzantium. The countries of what now make up the Arab world were divided between the two of them—Iraq under Persian rule, Syria, Palestine, and North Africa part of the Byzantine Empire. They spoke a variety of different languages and were for the most part Christians, with some Jewish minorities. Their Arabization and Islamization took place with the vast expansion of Islam in the decades and centuries following the death of the Prophet in 632 CE. The Aramaic language, once dominant in the Fertile Crescent, survives in only a few remote villages and in the rituals of the Eastern churches. Coptic, the language of Christian Egypt before the Arab conquest, has been entirely replaced by Arabic except in the church liturgy. Some earlier languages have survived, notably Kurdish in Southwest Asia and Berber in North Africa, but Arabic, in one form or another, has in effect become the language of everyday speech as well as of government, commerce, and culture in what has come to be known as "the Arab world."" 
  61. *L., Rogan, Eugene (1 January 2004). Frontiers of the state in the late Ottoman Empire : Transjordan, 1850–1921. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521892230. OCLC 826413749. 
    • Schsenwald, William L. "The Vilayet of Syria, 1901–1914: A Re-Examination of Diplomatic Documents As Sources." Middle East Journal (1968), Vol 22, No. 1, Winter: p. 73.
  62. Arab League formed — History.com This Day in History — 3/22/1945. History.com. Retrieved on 28 April 2014.
  63. "Arabs facts, information, pictures". Encyclopedia.com articles about Arabs. 21 April 2018. Diakses tanggal 9 May 2018. 
  64. "Religious Diversity Around The World – Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 4 April 2014. 
    • "Arab Civilization". Alhewar.org. Diakses tanggal 1 November 2017. 
    • Studies in the History of the Near East – Page 28 113627331X P.M. Holt – 2013 "He held the post until his death in 1624 and was succeeded by his former pupil, James Golius (1596–1667). Erpenius and Golius made outstanding contributions to the development of Arabic studies by their teaching, their preparation of texts, ..."


Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> ado untuak grup banamo "lower-alpha", tapi indak ado <references group="lower-alpha"/>