Urang Arab

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Urang Arab
عَرَب ('arab) (Arab)
Total populasi
lk. 450 juta (est. 2011)[1]
Kawasan jo populasi nan signifikan
 Liga Arab
430.000.000[2][3]
 Brazil Dipakiroan 12–13 juta jiwa saindaknyo badarah campuran Arab[4][5][lower-alpha 1]
 Parancih 3,3[7] inggo 5,5[8] juta jiwa bakaturunan Afrika Utara (Arab atau Berber)[9]
 Indonesia
 Turki 5.000.000[15][16][17][18][19]
 Argentina 4.500.000 saindaknyo bakaturunan campuran Arab[20]
 Amerika Sarikat 3.700.000[21]
 Venezuela 1.600.000[22]
 Kolombia 1.500.000[23]
 Iran 1.500.000[24]
 Meksiko 1.500.000[25][26]
 Chad 1.536.000 (est.)[27]
 Spanyol 1.350.000[28][29]
 Jerman 1.155.390[30][31]
 Chile 800.000[32][33][34][35]
 Kanada 750.925[36]
 Italia 680.000[37]
 Baritania Rayo 500.000[38]
 Australia 500.000[39]
 Ekuador 250.000 [40]
 Honduras 275.000 [41][42]
 Belgia 800.000 (600.000 dari Maroko)[rujuakan?]
 Balando 480.000–613.800[43]
 Swedia 425.000[rujuakan?]
 Denmark 121.000[rujuakan?]
 El Salvador Labiah dari 100.000[44][45][46][47][48]
 Japang kurang dari 100.000[49]
Bahaso
Arabic
Agamo
Dominan: Islam
(Sunni · Syiah · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawi)
Minoritas gadang: Kristen
(Ortodoks Yunani · Katolik Yunani)
Minoritas ketek: Druze · Baha'i
Maso daulu: Politeisme Arabia pra-Islam
Kalompok etnis takaik
Urang-urang nan babahaso Afroasiatik lainnyo, kusuihnyo urang Semitik sarupo urang Asyiria jo urang Yahudi[50][50][51][52][53][54][55]
Catatan kaki
a Etnis Arab indak buliah disamoan jo etnis non-Arab nan samo-samo panduduak asali dari dunia Arab.[55]
b Indak sadonyo urang Arab adolah Muslim jo indak sadonyo Muslim adolah urang Arab. Saurang Arab dapek sajo mamaluak agamo tatantu atau indak baagamo.
c Identitas Arab didefinisikan sacaro tapisah dari identitas agamo.

Urang Arab (/ˈærəbz/;[56] Arab: عَرَب‎, ISO 233 ‘arab; Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarab]  ( dengar)) adolah panduduak nan manampati wilayah nan disabuik dunia Arab, nan umumnyo adolah panduduak nagara-nagara Arab di Asia Barat, Afrika Utara, Tanduak Afrika, sarato di kapulauan Samudera Hindia sabalah barat.[57] Salain itu tadapek juo komunitas diaspora dalam jumalah nan cukuik banyak di babagai nagara di saluruah dunia.[58]

Namo Arab patamo kali tasabuik pado patangahan abaik kasambilan Sabalun Masihi, sabagai banso nan manatap di sabalah timur jo selatan jo Suriah inggo ka bagian utara Jazirah Arabia.[59] Urang-urang Arab maso itu agaknyo barado di bawah kakuasoan (manjadi vasal) karajaan Asyiria Baru (911–612 SM), sarato karajaan-karajaan salanjuiknyo sarupo Babilonia Baru (626–539 SM), Akhamenia (539–332 SM), Seleukia, jo Parthia.[60] Karajaan-karajaan Arab, nan paliang tanamo iolah Bani Ghassan jo Bani Lakhm, muloi muncua di bagian selatan Gurun Suriah pado patangahan abaik katigo Masihi jo sataruihnyo, yaitu di maso-maso patangahan inggo akia dari pamarentahan kakaisaran Romawi jo Sassania.[61]

Sabalun muloi tasebanyo banso Arab pado maso Khulafaur Rasyidin (632-661 M), istilah "Arab" marujuak kapado satiok banso Semitik nan masiah nomadik atau nan alah manatap di wilayah Jazirah Arabia, Gurun Suriah, sarato bagian utara jo ilia lambah Mesopotamia.[62] Kini ko, nan disabuik "Arab" alah maliputi jumalah gadang panduduak asali nan iduik di babagai nagara di dunia Arab, dek alah tajadi papindahan banso jo bahaso Arab ka wilayah nan labiah laweh pado maso awa panaklukan Muslim di abaik ka-7 jo ka-8, nan balanjuik jo proses Arabisasi kapado para panduduak satampek.[63] Urang-urang Arab mandirian kakhalifahan-kakhalifahan Rasyidah, Umayyah, Abbasiyyah jo Fathimiyyah, nan bateh-batehnyo mancapai selatan Parancih di barat, di Cino di timur, Anatolia di utara, jo Sudan di selatan. Iko salah satu karajaan darek tagadang dalam sijarah.[64] Di awa abaik ka-20, Parang Dunia Patamo manandoi runtuahnyo Kasultanan Usmaniyyah, nan alah manguasoi sabagian gadang dunia Arab satalah manaklukkan Kasultanan Mamluk pado 1517.[65] Puncaknyo adolah kakalahan jo pambubaran Kasultanan Usmaniyyah, lalu tabagi-bagi bakeh wilayahnyo manjadi nagara-nagara Arab moderen.[66] Manyusul balakunyo Protokol Aleksandria pado 1944, mako batagaklah Liga Arab pado 22 Maret 1945.[67] Piagam Liga Arab mandukuang prinsip tanah aia Arab, namun tatok maakui kadaulatan nagara-nagara anggotanyo.[68]

Kini ko, urang-urang Arab tarutamo mandiami 22 nagara-nagara Arab nan anggota Liga Arab: Aljazair, Bahrain, Komoro, Djibouti, Mesir, Irak, Yordania, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Maroko, Oman, Palestina, Qatar, Arab Saudi, Somalia, Sudan, Suriah, Tunisia, Uni Emirat Arab, jo Yaman. Dunia Arab mambantang sakita 13 juta km2, dari Samudra Atlantik di barat ka Lauik Arab di timur, jo dari Lauik Mediterania di utara ka Tanduak Afrika jo Samudra Hindia di tenggara. Di lua bateh-bateh Liga Nagara-nagara Arab, urang-urang Arab dapek ditamuan juo sabagai diaspora global.[57] Ikatan nan mangikek sasamo urang Arab adolah etnis, bahaso, budayo, sijarah, identitas, nasionalisme, geografis, jo politik.[69] Banso Arab punyo adaik, bahaso, arsitektur, seni, sastra, musik, tari, media, masakan, pakaian, masarakaik, olahraga, jo mitologi kusuihnyo surang.[70] Jumalah total urang Arab dipakiroan mancapai 450 juta.[1]

Urang-urang Arab marupoan kalompok nan baragam kok dicaliak dari afiliasi jo praktik kaagamoannyo. Pado maso pra-Islam, kabanyakan urang Arab manganuik politeisme. Babarapo suku alah mamaluak agamo Kristen atau Yahudi, jo babarapo urang nan disabuik hanif maamalan suatu bantuak monoteisme.[71] Kini ko, labiah kurang 93% urang Arab adolah panganuik Islam,[72] sarato cukuik banyak pulo minoritas Kristen.[73] Arab Muslim tarutamo maikuik aliran Sunni, Syiah, Ibadi, jo Alawi. Arab Kristen umumnyo maikuik salah satu Gareja Kristen Timur, sarupo Gareja Ortodoks Oriental atau salah satu Gareja Katolik Timur.[74] Agamo minoritas nan labiah ketek lai adolah Baha'i jo Druze.

Banso Arab alah banyak mampangaruahi jo manyumbang dalam babagai bidang, tarutamo seni jo arsitektur, bahaso, pilsapaik, mitologi, etika, sastra, politik, bisnis, musik, tari, bioskop, kedokteran, sains jo teknologi[75] sapanjang sijarah kuno jo modern paradaban manusia.

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

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