Palestina

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Palestine is located in Asia
██ Bateh-bateh Syria Palaestina Romawi, sadangkan garis hijau putuih-putuih manunjuakan bateh antaro Palaestina Prima Romawi Timua (kamudian manjadi Jund Filastin) jo Palaestina Secunda (kamudian manjadi Jund al-Urdunn), sarato Palaestina Salutaris (kamudian menjadi Jabal at-Tih jo Jifar)

██ Bateh-bateh Mandat Britania ateh Palestina ██ Bateh-bateh Negara Palestina (Tapi Baraik jo Jalur Gaza)

Palestina (Arab: فلسطينFilasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn; Yunani, Palaistinē; bahaso Latin: Palaestina; bahaso Ibrani: פלשתינה Palestina) adolah sabuah wilayah geografis di Timua Tangah antaro Lauik Tangah jo Sungai Yordan. Namo "Palestina" digunoan dek panulih-panulih Yunani Kuno, jo kamudian digunoan untuak provinsi Romawi Syria Palaestina, provinsi Romawi Timua Palaestina Prima jo provinsi Umayyah jo Abbasiyah Jund Filastin. Wilayah iko dikenal juo sabagai Tanah Israel (bahasa Ibrani: ארץ־ישראל Eretz-Yisra'el),[1] Tanah Suci, Levant Salatan[2], Cisjordan, jo sacaro historis dikenal jo namo-namo lainnyo seperti Kanaan, Suriah Salatan jo Kerajaan Yerusalem.

Talatak di lokasi nan strategis, di antaro Mesir, Suriah jo Jazirah Arab, jo tampek lahianyo Agamo Yahudi jo Kakristenan, wilayah iko mampunyoi sijarah nan panjang jo riuh sabagai pasimpangan untuak agamo, budayo, padagangan jo politik. Wilayah iko alah dikuasai dek babagai bangsa, yaitu: Urang Mesir Kuno, Urang Kanaan, Bani Israil, Orang Assyiria, Urang Babilonia, Urang Farsi, Urang Yunani Kuno, Urang Romawi, Urang Romawi Timua, Kakhalifahan Arab Sunni, Kakhalifahan Fatimiyah Syi'ah, Urang Salibi, Ayyubiyyah, Mamluk, Turki Utsmani, Urang Britania, Urang Israel modern jo Bangsa Palestina.

Bateh-bateh dari wilayah iko salalu barubah sapanjang sijarah, jo tarakhia kali ditatapkan pado zaman modern dek Pasatujuan bateh Parancih-Britania (1920) jo Nota Transyordania (tanggal 16 September 1922), salamo pariode Mandat Palestina.[3] Kini, wilayah iko tadiri dari Negara Israel jo Negara Palestina.[3]

Etimologi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Istilah Peleset (Transliterasi dari Hieroglif Mesir sabagai P-r-s-t) basobok di babagai dokumen Mesir nan merujuak kapado sabuah bangsa atau tanah nan badakekan, bamulo dari sakitar taun 1150 SM salamo Dinasti kaduo puluah Mesir. Panyabuikan partamo dipakiroan ado di dalam teks-teks dari Kuil Medinet Habu, nan marekam sabuah bangsa nan disabuik Peleset ado di antaro Bangsa Lauik, nan manyerbu Mesir pado maso bakuasonya Ramses III,[4] kamudian diikuiki dek sabuah ukiran pado Patuang Padiiset. Urang Assyria manyabuik wilayah iko sabagai Palashtu atau Pilistu, dimulai Adad-nirari III pado Lempeng Nimrod sakitar taun 800 SM, sampai kaisar Sargon II, dalam hikayaiknyo sakitar 1 abad satalah Lempeng Nimrod.[5][6][7]

Geografi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Peta Palestina sabagai nagara baru dari Kakhilafahan Ottoman Turki, nan dimuek dek New York Tribune pado 17 Juni 1917.
Papan namo dalam tribahaso di Palestina

Palestina talatak di bagian baraik benua Asia nan mambantang antaro garih lintang meridian 15-34 dan 40-35 ka arah timua, jo antari garih lintang meridian 30-29 dan 15-33 ka arah utara.

Palestina mambantuak bagian tenggara dari kasatuan geografis nan gadang di balahan timua dunia Arab nan disabuik jo nagari Syam. Salain Palestina, nagari Syam tadiri dari Lebanon, Suriah jo Yordania. Pado awalnyo negara-negara iko punyo pabatasan nan kolektif di lua pabatasannyo jo Mesir.

Pabatasan Palestina dimulai dari Lebanon di Ras El-Nakoura di wilayah Lauik Tangah (Lauik Mediterania) jo garih luruih mangarah ka timua sampai ka daerah di dakek kota ketek Lebanon yaitu kota Bent Jubayel, di mano garih pamisah antaro kaduo negara iko miriang ka Utara jo suduik nan hampia luruih. Pado titik iko, pabatasan barado mangitari mato aia Sungai Yordan nan menjadi bagian dari Palestina dalam jalan ketek nan mambatasinyo dari wilayah Timua jo wilayah Suriah jo danau Al Hola, Lout jo Tabariyya.

Pabatasan jo Yordania dimulai di wilayah salatan danau Tabariyya pado pambuangan sungai Al Yarmouk. Taruih sapanjang Sungai Yordan. Dari mato aia Sungai Yordan, pabatasan iko ka arah Salatan mambalah patangahan Lauik Mati sacaro geometrikal jo lembah Araba, hinggo sampai pado daerah Aqaba.

Pabatasan jo Mesir dapek digambaran jo garih nan hampia mambantuak garih luruih nan mambalah antaro daerah semi-pulau Seena jo padang pasia Al Naqab. Pabatasan iko dimulai di Rafah di Lauik Tangah hinggo sampai ke daerah Taba di Teluk Aqaba.

Di bagian Baraik, Palestina talatak di sabalah paaiaan lapeh internasional dari Lauik Tangah jo jarak sakitar 250 km dari Ras El-Nakoura di balah salatan hinggo Rafah di bagian salatan.

Karano lokasinya talatak di patangahan negara-negara Arab, Palestina mambantuak kombinasi geografis nan natural jo humanistik bagi medan terestrial nan laweh nan mamuek kahidupan urang-urang asli Badui di wilayah salatan jo gaya panduduakan nan alah lamo di bagian utara. Tanah Palestina punyo kaistimewaan dibandiang jo daerah lain karano marupoan bagian dari tampek diturunkannyo sadoalah agama samawi, tampek di mano paradaban kuno muncua, manjadi jambatan aktivitas komersial jo tampek panyusupan ekspedisi militer di sapanjang era basijarah nan babeda. Lokasi strategis nan dinikmati Palestina mamungkinkannyo untuak manjadi faktor panghubuang antaro babagai benua bagi dunia kuno Asia, Afrika jo Eropa. Palestina manjadi tampek nan dijadikan pintu masuak juo bagi pajalanan ka negara-negara tetangga. Inyo manjadi jambatan panghubuang bagi manusia sajak dulu kala, sabagaimano inyo menikmati juo lokasi sentral (Pusek) nan mamikek sabagian urang nan nio bamukim jo hiduik dalam kamakmuran.

Pamarintahan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pada saat iko daerah Palestina tabagi manjadi duo entitas politik:

Sijarah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Caliak pulo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Referensi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Gideon Biger (2004). The Boundaries of Modern Palestine, 1840–1947. RoutledgeCurzon. passim. 
  2. de Geus, 2003, p. 7.
  3. a b Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, Bruce Alan Masters, Gábor Ágoston. Books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=QjzYdCxumFcC&pg=PA453. Diakses pado 17 Agustus 2012. 
  4. Fahlbusch et al., 2005, p. 185.
  5. Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  6. Sharon, 1988, p. 4.
  7. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Roomp285

Pranala lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Peta

Pustaka[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

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