Ramadan

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Ramadan
Ramadan
Bulan sabik tampak nan di ateh pohon kurma samaso matahari naiak di Manama, manandoi mulainyo Ramadan di Bahrain.
Dirayoan Muslim
Jinih Islam
Bamulo 1 Ramadan
Baakhia 29, atau 30 Ramadan
Tangga Baragam (manuruikan almanak Islam)
Parayoan Babuko puaso jo Idul Fitri
Kagiatan
Bahubuangan jo Idul Fitri, Laylat al-Qadr

Ramadan (Arab: رمضان‎, Ramaḍān, IPA: [rɑmɑˈdˤɑːn];[variations] bahaso Parsi: رمضان Ramazān; bahaso Urdu: رمضان Ramzān; bahaso Turki: Ramazan)[3] atau dek urang awak disabuik bulan basaha adolah bulan kasambilan dalam kalender Islam,[4] dan dirayoan dek umaik Muslim di saluruah dunia jo bapuaso (saum) sarato mamparingati wahyu partamo nan turun kapado Nabi Muhammad manuruik kayakinan umaik Muslim.[5][6] Parayoan tahunan ko dihoromati sabagai ciek dari rukun Islam nan limo.[7] Bulan Ramadan balansuang salamo 29–30 ari manuruik pamantauan hilal (bulan sabik), sapantun jo aturan-aturan nan tatulih dalam hadits.[8][9]

Kato Ramadan barasa dari aka kato bahaso Arab ramiḍa atau ar-ramaḍ, nan aratinyo paneh nan maanguihan atau kakariangan.[10] Puaso Ramadan dalam hukumnyo fardhu (diwajibkan) untuak Muslim dewasa, kacuali maalami halangan untuak malakukannyo sarupo sakik, dalam pajalanan, alah gaek, manganduang, manyusui, diabetes atau sadang mandapek halangan menstruasi.[11] Kawajiban bapuaso pado bulan Ramadan turun pado bulan Sya'ban tahun kaduo salapehh hijrahnyo umaik Muslim dari Makkah ka Madinah.[12] Bulan Ramadan diawali jo panantuan bulan sabik (hilal) sabagai panando bulan baru.[13]

Salamo bapuaso samanjak pagi inggo patang, Muslim dilarang untuak makan, minum cairan apopun, marokok, jo bahubuangan badan. Salain itu, diparintahkan pulo untuak mailakan pabuatan doso untuak manyamparonokan pahalo puaso, sarupo bakato-kato nan buruak (co mancacek, mambuek pitanah, mangutuak, baduto) jo bacakak.[14] Makanan jo minuman dapek tasadioan satiok ari, yakni katiko sabalun matoari tabik (subuah) inggo tabanamnyo matoari (mugarik).[15][16] Mamintak ampun (taubat) katiko bulan Ramadan rami dilakuan.[17] Bapuaso untuak Muslim wakatu Ramadan biasonyo disaratoi jo mampabanyak salat jo mambaco Al-Quran.[18][19]

Kakhususan bulan Ramadan dek pamaluak agamo Islam tajalehan pado Al-Quran surek Al-Baqarah ayaik 183 nan aratinyo:

"Hai urang-urang nan bariman, diwajibkan ateh kalian bapuaso sarupo jo nan diwajibkan ateh urang-urang sabalun kalian supayo batakwa."
—(Al-Baqarah 2: 183)


Sijarah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Surek Albaqarah, Ayaik 185

Surek 2, Ayaik 185, dari Quran manyatoan:

Bulan Ramadan adolah bulan diturunkannyo Alquran, Patunjuak dek umaik manusia, sarato bukti adonyo Nabi jo Rasul, subagai tuntunan iduik sarato pambeda (batua jo salah). Saluruah umaik Islam wajib bapuaso di bulan itu, dan siapopun nan sadang sakik atau dalam pajalanan, buliah indak bapuaso dan diwajibkan mangganti pado ari nan lain. Allah maagiah kalian kamudahan dan indak mainginkan kasusahan untuak kalian. Untuak padusi musti manyalasaian datang bulannyo, salapeh itu wajib manggantinyo sasudah Ramadhan sarato kalian musti maaguangan Allah dek karano alah mambimbiang kalian, dan musti basyukua.[Al-Qur'an 2:185]

Alquran partamo kali diwahyukan bakeh Nabi Muhammad salamo bulan Ramadan nan alah tasabuik sabagai "maso tabaiak". Wahyu partamo diturunkan di malam Lailatul Qadar (malam kamuliaan) nan marupokan ciek dari limo malam dalam sapuluah ari tarakhia bulan Ramadan.[20] Manuruik hadis, sado kitab suci diturunkan salamo bulan Ramadan. Shuhuf Ibrahim, Taurat, Mazmur, Injil, jo Alquran diturunkan surang-surang pado tangga 1, 6, 12, 13 [note 1] jo 24 Ramadan.[21]

Di dalam Al Qur'an, puasa juo wajib dek umaik-umaik tadaulu, dan marupokan caro untuak mancapai status taqwa, takuik ka bakeh Tuhan.[22][Al-Qur'an 2:183] Allah SWT manyatokan bakeh Nabi Muhammad baso bapuaso untuak Baliau bukanlah sabuah hal nan baru lai. Dalam monoteisme, hal nan biaso dijalani dek urang-urang nan sabana maambo pado kaasoan Allah.[23] Urang-urang kapia Makkah pun bapuaso, tapi anyo pado hari kasapuluah Muharram untuak maradokan doso sarato baarok tailak dari kakariangan.[24]

Kaputusan untuak manjalani ibadah puaso salamo bulan Ramadan diturunkan 18 bulan sasudah Hijrah, yaitu pado bulan Sya'ban pado tahun kaduo Hijrah atau pado tahun 624 Masehi.[21]

Abu Zanad, surang panulih Arab dari Irak nan iduik salapeh batagaknyo Islam sakitar tahun 747 M, manulih baso saindaknyo ciek komunitas nan banamo Mandaenisme (Kaum Sabiin) nan ado di al-Jazira (Irak utara modern) maamati Ramadan sabalun bapindah ka Islam.[25]

Manuruik Philip Jenkins, Ramadan datang "dari disiplin gareja-gareja Syria nan pakek".[26] Namun, saran ko dirujuak pado gagasan orientalis baso Alquran surang mampunyoi asa Syria, hal ko ditulak dek akademisi Muslim sarupo M. Al-Azami.[27]

Kajadian samaso[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Sabalun babuko, umaik Islam disunahkan mampabanyak ibadah.

Barikuik kajadian basijarah nan diyakini tajadi samaso jo bulan Ramadan:

Lailatul Qadr tapantau balansuang pado ciek ari di antaro sapuluah ari tarakhia bulan Ramadan (biasonyo pado malam-malam ganjia). Muslim picayo baso pado malam ko nan disabuik sabagai "Malam Kamuliaan" labiah baiak daripado saribu bulan. Pado ari iko, ibadah sapanjang malam ko sarupo jo ibadah salamo saribu bulan (kiro-kiro 83 tahun; saumua iduik). Rami umaik Muslim maabihan malamnyo jo mampabanyak ibadah.

Maso pantiang[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Awa[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Tabel awa Ramadan tahun Gregorian antaro 1938 dan 2038.

Kalender Hijriyah ditantuan manuruikan revolusi bulan mangaliliangi bumi dan tiok awa bulan diputuihan soal tampaknyo hilal (bulan sabik). Metode panantuan tampaknyo hilal nan digunokan kini adolah metode mancaliak jo mato talanjang (tanamo jo istilah rukyah) sarato manggunokan metode paretongan astronomi (tanamo jo istilah hisab). Persatuan Islam (PERSIS) jo Majelis Ulama Indonesia (MUI) manggunokan kombinasi hisab jo rukyah untuak panantuan hilal. Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) sarato Kamantarian Agamo RI salaku Pamarintah RI manggunokan metode rukyatul hilal; samantaro Muhammadiyah manggunokan hisab hakiki wal wujudul hilal sabagai sandaran panantuan hilal.[29] Pabedaan metode ko manyababkan adonyo kamungkinan pabedaan hasia panetapan bilo mulo jo akhia Ramadan bak cando nan tajadi pado tahun 1998 M (1418 H).[30][31]

Malam kamuliaan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Lailatul Qadar (malam kamuliaan), adolah satu malam nan khusus tajadi di bulan Ramadan. Malam ko dikatokan dalam Alquran pado surah Al-Qadr, labiah ancak daripado saribu bulan.[32][33] Wakatu pasti balansuangnyo malam ko indak dikatahui do. Namun manuruik babarapo riwayaik, malam ko jatuah pado 10 malam tarakhia pado bulan Ramadan. Labiah tapeknyo pado ciek dari malam-malam ganjia di antaronyo malam ka-21, 23, 25, 27 atau ka-29.[34] [35] Sabagian Muslim biasonyo barusaho indak malewaikan malam ko dan marayoan malam ko jo manjago diri untuak batanggang salamp malam-malam tarakhia Ramadan sambia baribadah sapanjang malam.[36]

Akhia[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Akhia dari bulan Ramadan dirayoan jo sanang ati dek saluruah muslim di saluruah dunia. Pado malam harinyo (malam 1 Syawal), nan biaso basabuik malam kamanangan, biasonyo umaik ka mangumandangkan takabia basamo-samo. Di Indonesia surang ritual ko manjadi hal nan menarik karano biasonyo umaik Muslim mangumandangkan takabia sambia bapawai kaliliang kota jo kampuang, kadang-kadang langkok jo mamukua beduk sarato manyaloan kambang api atau maiduikan palito.

Barisuaknyo tangga 1 Syawal, nan dirayoan sabagai hari rayo Idul Fitri, baiak laki-laki maupun padusi muslim ka mamadekan musajik maupun lapangan tampek ka dilakukannyo Salat Ied. Salat dilakukan duo raka'at kudian ka diakhiri dek duo khutbah tantang Idul Fitri. Parayoan kudian dilanjuikan jo acara saliang mamintak maaf di antaro muslim, dan sakalian mangakhiri saluruah rangkaian aktivitas agamo khusus nan manyaratoi Ramadan.[37]

Catatan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. The hadith of Jabir ibn Abdullah mentions that the Gospel was sent down on the 18th of Ramadan. Aliyev, Rafig Y. (June 2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 9781490705217. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=t6CvZJJt1PIC&q=fasting#v=snippet. 

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Abu Dawud-Ibn-Ash'ath-AsSijisstani, Sulayman. "Sunan Abu-Dawud - (The Book of Prayer) - Detailed Injunctions about Ramadan, Hadith 1370". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement of The University of Southern California. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 22 Nopember 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20111122153054/http://www.cmje.org/religious-texts/hadith/abudawud/006-sat.php. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  2. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari - Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 199.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2391-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-199.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  3. Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim - Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2391.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/134-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2006.%20Fasting/10952-sahih-muslim-book-006-hadith-number-2391.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  4. BBCReligions Retrieved 25 July 2012
  5. "Muslims worldwide start to observe Ramadan". The Global Times Online. 3 Agustus 2012. http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/722486.shtml. Diakses pado 28 Juli 2012. 
  6. "The Muslim World Observes Ramadan". Power Text Solutions. 3 Agustus 2012. http://newsfeedresearcher.com/data/articles_w30_3/ramadan-muslims-fasting.html. Diakses pado 28 Juli 2012. 
  7. "Schools – Religions". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/religion/islam/ramadan.shtml. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  8. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2466-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-124.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  9. Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2378.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/134-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2006.%20Fasting/10970-sahih-muslim-book-006-hadith-number-2378.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  10. Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2391.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/134-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2006.%20Fasting/10952-sahih-muslim-book-006-hadith-number-2391.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  11. Fasting (Al Siyam) – الصيام – Page 18, el Bahay el Kholi, 1998
  12. "Saudi Aramco World: Ramadan in the Farthest North". https://www.saudiaramcoworld.com/issue/201201/ramadan.in.the.farthest.north.htm. Diakses pado 16 Juni 2015. 
  13. "How to pray and fast in countries where the day or night is continuous". https://islamqa.info/en/5842. Diakses pado 5 Pebruari 2017. 
  14. IslamQA, "It is not permissible for one who is fasting to insult anyone", URL: http://islamqa.info/en/37658
  15. Islam, Andrew Egan – 2002 – page 24
  16. Dubai – Page 189, Andrea Schulte-Peevers – 2010
  17. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2465-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-125.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  18. Abu Dawud-Ibn-Ash'ath-AsSijisstani, Sulayman. "Sunan Abu-Dawud – (The Book of Prayer) – Detailed Injunctions about Ramadan, Hadith 1370". Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement of The University of Southern California. http://www.cmje.org/religious-texts/hadith/abudawud/006-sat.php. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  19. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 199.". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2391-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-199.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  20. Ad-Dausaree, Mahmood Bin Ahmad Bin Saaleh (2006). The Magnificence of Quran. Darussalam Publishers. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=AKmmBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT29&dq=ramadan+quran+revealed&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=ramadan%2520quran%2520revealed&f=false. 
  21. a b Aliyev, Rafig Y. (June 2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 129. ISBN 9781490705217. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=t6CvZJJt1PIC. 
  22. al-Uthaymeen, Shaikh Saalih. Explanation of the Three Fundamental Principles of Islam (Salafi): Sharh Usool ath-Thalatha of Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahaab. Salafi Books. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=EbamAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT63#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  23. Quran Chapter 2, Revelation 183
  24. Aliyev, Rafig Y. (February 2013). Loud Thoughts on Religion: A Version of the System Study of Religion. Useful Lessons for Everybody. Trafford Publishing. p. 128. ISBN 9781490705217. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=t6CvZJJt1PIC. 
  25. See Ibn Qutaybah,op.cit.page 204; Cited by Sinasi Gunduz, The Knowledge of Life, Oxford University, 1994, p. 25, note 403: "Abu al-Fida, op-cit., p.148; Bar Habraeus, op.cit. p.266, Ibn Hazm claims that this fast is the fast of Ramadan (of the Muslims), but this is completely wrong."
  26. Jenkins, Philip (31 July 2006). The New Faces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South (p. 182). Oxford University Press. Kindle Edition.
  27. Muhammad Mustafa al-Azami, "The History of The Qur'anic Text: From Revelation to Compilation: A Comparative Study with the Old and New Testaments", 2nd Edition (2008), Azami Publishing House
  28. http://www.pakistan.gov.pk Archived 2006-01-27 di Wayback Machine.
  29. T Djamaluddin, Fatwa MUI Membuka Jalan: Penyatuan Hari Raya Segera Terwujud [1]
  30. Hilal Sighting & Islamic Dates: Issues and Solution Insha'Allaah. Hilal Sighting Committee of North America (website). Retrieved 19 August 2009.
  31. Bukhari-Ibn-Ismail, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 124". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2466-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-124.html. Diakses pado 25 Juli 2012. 
  32. Robinson, Neal (1999). Islam: A Concise Introduction. Washington: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-224-1. 
  33. Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 031 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 125". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/64-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2031.%20Fasting/2465-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-031-hadith-number-125.html. Diakses pado 28 Juli 2012. 
  34. Ibn-Ismail-Bukhari, AbdAllah-Muhammad. "Sahih Bukhari – Book 032 (Praying at Night during Ramadan), Hadith 238". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihbukhari/65-Sahih%20Bukhari%20Book%2032.%20Praying%20at%20Night%20In%20Ramadan%20(Taraweeh)/2479-sahih-bukhari-volume-003-book-032-hadith-number-238.html. Diakses pado 28 Juli 2012. 
  35. Muslim-Ibn-Habaj, Abul-Hussain. "Sahih Muslim – Book 006 (The Book of Fasting), Hadith 2632". hadithcollection.com. http://hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/134-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2006.%20Fasting/10668-sahih-muslim-book-006-hadith-number-2632.html. Diakses pado 28 Juli 2012. 
  36. Hidayatullah: Cara jitu memburu Lailatul Qadar
  37. "Ruling on Voluntary Fasting After The Month Of Ramadan: Eid Day(s) And Ash-Shawaal". EsinIslam, Arab News & Information – By Adil Salahi. 11 September 2010. http://www.esinislam.com/Articles201009/WritersArticles_AdilSalahi_0911.htm. Diakses pado 23 Mai 2016.