Bumi

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Bumi  Astronomical symbol of Earth
A planetary disk of white cloud formations, brown and green land masses, and dark blue oceans against a black background. The Arabian peninsula, Africa and Madagascar lie in the upper half of the disk, while Antarctica is at the bottom.
"Pualam Biru" foto bumi,
diambiak dari Apollo 17
Panamoan
Pangucapan /en-us-earth.oggˈɜrθ/
Istilah earthly, tellurian, telluric, terran, terrestrial.
Jangka wakatu J2000.0[note 1]
Aphelion152,098,232 km
1.01671388 AU[note 2]
Perihelion 147,098,290 km
0.98329134 AU[note 2]
Sumbu semi-mayor 149,598,261 km
1.00000261 AU[1]
Eksentrisitas 0.01671123[1]
Periode orbit 365.256363004 days[2]
1.000017421 tahun
Kacapatan orbit rato-rato 29.78 km/s[3]
107,200 km/h
Anomali rato-rato 357.51716°[3]
Inklinasi 7.155° dari equator Matohari
1.57869°[4] to invariable plane
Bujua node manaiak 348.73936°[3][note 3]
Argumen perihelion 114.20783°[3][note 4]
Satelit 1 natural (Bulan)
8,300+ artificial (pada 1 Maret 2001 (2001-03-01))[5]
Karakteristik fisik
Jari-jari
rato-rato
6,371.0 km[6]
Jari-jari
ekuator
6,378.1 km[7][8]
Radius kutub 6,356.8 km[9]
Kapapatan 0.0033528[10]
Kaliliang 40,075.017 km (equatorial)[8]
40,007.86 km (meridional)[11]
Laweh pamukoan 510,072,000 km2[12][13][note 5]

148,940,000 km2 land (29.2 %)

361,132,000 km2 water (70.8 %)
Volume 1.08321×1012 km3[3]
Masso 5.9736×1024 kg[3]
Masso jenis
rato-rato
5.515 g/cm3[3]
Gravitasi pamukoan ekuator9.780327 m/s2[14]
0.99732 g
Kacapatan palapehan11.186 km/s[3]
Hari sideris 0.99726968 d[15]
23h 56m 4.100s
Kacapatan rotasi 16.744 km/h (4,651 m/s)[16]
Kamiriangan sumbu 23°26'21".4119[2]
Albedo0.367 (geometric)[3]
0.306 (Bond)[3]
Suhu pamukoan
   Kelvin
   Celsius
minrato-ratomax
184 K[17]287.2 K[18]331 K[19]
-89.2 °C14 °C57.8 °C
Atmosfir
Takanan pamukoan 101.325 kPa (MSL)
Komposisi 78.08% Nitrogen (N2)[3]
20.95% oxygen (O2)
0.93% Argon
0.038% Karbon diosida
About 1% water vapor (varies with Klimak)

Bumi adolah planet katigo dari matohari, dan marupoan planet nan tapadek jo gadang nan ka limo dari salapan planet di tata surya. Inyo ko juo tamasuak paliang gadang dari nan ampek buah planet terrestrial. Bumi ko dirujuak juo sabagai dunia, planet biru,[20] atau namo latinnyo, Terra.[note 6]

Bumi ko rumah bagi jutaan spesies, tamasuak manusia, bumi kini ko manjadi satu-satunyo benda astronomi nan di situ ado kehidupan.[21] Planet ko tabantuak 4.54 billion taun lalu, dan kehidupan muncul di permukaan bumi sekitar satu billion taun.[22] Adonyo biosfir di bumi nan signifikan maubah atmosfir dan kondisi abiotik lainnyo di bumi, mamungkinkan proliferasi organisme aerobik sarato pambentukan lapisan ozon, basamo jo medan magnet bumi, mahalangi radiasi matohari, sahinggo mamungkinkan adonyo kehidupan di darek.[23] Sacaro geofisik bumi, seperti sajarah geologi dan orbit, mamungkinkan kehidupan lah bertahan salamo periode ko. Planet ko dihrapakan dapek taruih batahan untuak mandukuang kehidupan satidaknyo sampai 500 milyar taun lai.[24][25]

Kronologi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Urang cadiak pandai kini lah mampu marekonstruksi ulang maklumat rinci tentang maso lalu planet ko. Penanggalan awal tabantuaknyo sistem surya ko 4.5672 ± 0.0006 billion taun lalu,[26] atau 4.54 billion tahun lalu (1% indak pasti)[22] the Earth and the other planets in the Solar System had formed out of the solar nebula—a disk-shaped mass of dust and gas left over from the formation of the Sun. This assembly of the Earth through accretion was thus largely completed within 10–20 million years.[27] Initially molten, the outer layer of the planet Earth cooled to form a solid crust when water began accumulating in the atmosphere. The Moon formed shortly thereafter, 4.53 billion years ago.[28]

Catatan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ All astronomical quantities vary, both secularly and periodically. The quantities given are the values at the instant J2000.0 of the secular variation, ignoring all periodic variations.
  2. ^ a b aphelion = a × (1 + e); perihelion = a × (1 - e), where a is the semi-major axis and e is the eccentricity.
  3. ^ The reference lists the longitude of the ascending node as -11.26064°, which is equivalent to 348.73936° by the fact that any angle is equal to itself plus 360°.
  4. ^ The reference lists the longitude of perihelion, which is the sum of the longitude of the ascending node and the argument of perihelion. That is, 114.20783° + (-11.26064°) = 102.94719°.
  5. ^ Due to natural fluctuations, ambiguities surrounding ice shelves, and mapping conventions for vertical datums, exact values for land and ocean coverage are not meaningful. Based on data from the Vector Map and Global Landcover datasets, extreme values for coverage of lakes and streams are 0.6% and 1.0% of the Earth's surface. The ice shields of Antarctica and Greenland are counted as land, even though much of the rock which supports them lies below sea level.
  6. ^ By International Astronomical Union convention, the term terra is used only for naming extensive land masses on celestial bodies other than the Earth. Cf. Blue, Jennifer (2007-07-05). "Descriptor Terms (Feature Types)". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS. http://planetarynames.wr.usgs.gov/jsp/append5.jsp. Diakses pado 5 Juli 2007. 

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ a b Standish, E. Myles; Williams, James C. "Orbital Ephemerides of the Sun, Moon, and Planets" (PDF). International Astronomical Union Commission 4: (Ephemerides). http://iau-comm4.jpl.nasa.gov/XSChap8.pdf. Diakses pado 3 April 2010.  See table 8.10.2. Calculation based upon 1 AU = 149,597,870,700(3) m.
  2. ^ a b Staff (2007-08-07). "Useful Constants". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. http://hpiers.obspm.fr/eop-pc/models/constants.html. Diakses pado 23 September 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Williams, David R. (2004-09-01). "Earth Fact Sheet". NASA. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/earthfact.html. Diakses pado 9 Agustus 2010. 
  4. ^ Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 294. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. http://books.google.com/?id=w8PK2XFLLH8C&pg=PA294. Diakses pado 13 Maret 2011. 
  5. ^ US Space Command (March 1, 2001). "Reentry Assessment - US Space Command Fact Sheet". SpaceRef Interactive. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewpr.html?pid=4008. Diakses pado 7 Mai 2011. 
  6. ^ Various (2000). David R. Lide. ed. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (edisi ke-81st). CRC. ISBN 0-8493-0481-4. 
  7. ^ "Selected Astronomical Constants, 2011". The Astronomical Almanac. http://asa.usno.navy.mil/SecK/2011/Astronomical_Constants_2011.txt. Diakses pado 25 Pebruari 2011. 
  8. ^ a b World Geodetic System (WGS-84). Available online from National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency.
  9. ^ Cazenave, Anny (1995). "Geoid, Topography and Distribution of Landforms". di dalam Ahrens, Thomas J (PDF). Global earth physics a handbook of physical constants. Washington, DC: American Geophysical Union. ISBN 0-87590-851-9. http://www.agu.org/reference/gephys/5_cazenave.pdf. Diakses pado 3 Agustus 2008. 
  10. ^ IERS Working Groups (2003). "General Definitions and Numerical Standards". di dalam McCarthy, Dennis D.; Petit, Gérard. IERS Technical Note No. 32. U.S. Naval Observatory and Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. http://www.iers.org/MainDisp.csl?pid=46-25776. Diakses pado 3 Agustus 2008. 
  11. ^ Humerfelt, Sigurd (October 26, 2010). "How WGS 84 defines Earth". http://home.online.no/~sigurdhu/WGS84_Eng.html. Diakses pado 29 April 2011. 
  12. ^ Pidwirny, Michael (2006-02-02). Surface area of our planet covered by oceans and continents.(Table 8o-1). University of British Columbia, Okanagan. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/8o.html. Diakses pado 26 Nopember 2007. 
  13. ^ Staff (2008-07-24). "World". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html. Diakses pado 5 Agustus 2008. 
  14. ^ Yoder, Charles F. (1995). T. J. Ahrens. ed. Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington: American Geophysical Union. p. 12. ISBN 0-87590-851-9. http://www.agu.org/reference/gephys.html. Diakses pado 17 Maret 2007. 
  15. ^ Allen, Clabon Walter; Cox, Arthur N. (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities. Springer. p. 296. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. http://books.google.com/?id=w8PK2XFLLH8C&pg=PA296. Diakses pado 17 Agustus 2010. 
  16. ^ Arthur N. Cox, ed (2000). Allen's Astrophysical Quantities (edisi ke-4th). New York: AIP Press. p. 244. ISBN 0-387-98746-0. http://books.google.com/?id=w8PK2XFLLH8C&pg=PA244. Diakses pado 17 Agustus 2010. 
  17. ^ "World: Lowest Temperature". WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive. Arizona State University. http://wmo.asu.edu/world-lowest-temperature. Diakses pado 7 Agustus 2010. 
  18. ^ Kinver, Mark, "Global average temperature may hit record level in 2010 ", BBC Online, 10 Desember 2009. Diakses pado 22 April 2010.
  19. ^ "World: Highest Temperature". WMO Weather and Climate Extremes Archive. Arizona State University. http://wmo.asu.edu/world-highest-temperature. Diakses pado 7 Agustus 2010. 
  20. ^ Drinkwater, Mark; Kerr, Yann; Font, Jordi; Berger, Michael (February 2009). "Exploring the Water Cycle of the ‘Blue Planet’: The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission". ESA Bulletin (European Space Agency) (137): 6–15. http://www.esa.int/esapub/bulletin/bulletin137/bul137b_drinkwater.pdf. "A view of Earth, the ‘Blue Planet’ [...] When astronauts first went into the space, they looked back at our Earth for the first time, and called our home the ‘Blue Planet’.". 
  21. ^ May, Robert M. (1988). "How many species are there on earth?". Science 241 (4872): 1441–1449. doi:10.1126/science.241.4872.1441. PMID 17790039. Bibcode1988Sci...241.1441M. 
  22. ^ a b See:
  23. ^ Harrison, Roy M. (2002). Causes and Environmental Implications of Increased UV-B Radiation. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-265-2. 
  24. ^ Britt, Robert (2000-02-25). "Freeze, Fry or Dry: How Long Has the Earth Got?". http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090605231345/http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/death_of_earth_000224.html. 
  25. ^ Carrington, Damian, "Date set for desert Earth ", (BBC News), 21 Pebruari 2000. Diakses pado 31 Maret 2007.
  26. ^ Bowring, S. (1995). "The Earth's early evolution". Science 269 (5230): 1535. doi:10.1126/science.7667634. PMID 7667634. Bibcode1995Sci...269.1535B. 
  27. ^ Yin, Qingzhu; Jacobsen, S. B.; Yamashita, K.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Télouk, P.; Albarède, F. (2002). "A short timescale for terrestrial planet formation from Hf-W chronometry of meteorites". Nature 418 (6901): 949–952. doi:10.1038/nature00995. PMID 12198540. Bibcode2002Natur.418..949Y. 
  28. ^ Kleine, Thorsten; Palme, Herbert; Mezger, Klaus; Halliday, Alex N. (2005-11-24). "Hf-W Chronometry of Lunar Metals and the Age and Early Differentiation of the Moon". Science 310 (5754): 1671–1674. doi:10.1126/science.1118842. PMID 16308422. Bibcode2005Sci...310.1671K. 

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