Urang Kazakh

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Urang Kazakh
Kawasan jo populasi nan signifikan
 Kazakhstan 12.212.645 (2018)[1]
 Cino1.800.000[2]
 Uzbekistan800.000[3]
 Rusia647.732[4]
 Mongolia102.526[5]
 Kirgizstan33.200[6]
 Amerika Sarikat24.636[7]
 Turki10.000[8]
 Kanada9.600[9]
 Iran3.000–15.000[10][11]
 Republik Ceko5.639[12]
 Ukraina5.526[13]
 Uni Emirat Arab5.000[14]
 Austria1.685[15]
 Belarusia1.355[16]
 Jerman1.000[17]
Bahaso
Kazakh
Rusia (di Rusia) and Mandarin (di Cino) (rami dipakai sabagai bahaso kaduo)[18][19]
Agamo
Mayoritas Islam[20][4][21][22][23]
Minoritas: Kristen,[24] Ateis[25]
Kalompok etnis takaik
Banso Turkik lainnyo jo Mongol

Urang Kazakh (diijo Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: tungga: Қазақ, Qazaq, [qɑˈzɑq] ( danga), jamak: Қазақтар, Qazaqtar, [qɑzɑqˈtɑr] ( danga); adolah etnis dari rumpun Turkik nan umumnyo mauni Barisan Gunuang Ural jo bagian utara Asia Tangah (mayoritas Kazakhstan, tapi juo bagian dari Rusia, Uzbekistan, Mongolia, jo Cino) di Eurasia. Identitas Kazakh barasa dari abaik patangahan dan manguek manjadi dasa identitas Kakhanan Kazakh antaro 1456 jo 1465, katiko babarapo suku di baruah parintah Sultan Zhanibek jo Kerey dipulangkan dari Kakhanan Abu'l-Khayr Khan. Suku-suku tasabuik antaro lain Argyn, Dughlat, Naiman, Jalair, Kerait, Qarluq, dan Kipchak.[26]

Asa mulo namo Kazakh[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Urang Kazakh partamo kali manamoi dirinyo jo namo itu dipakirokan salamo abaik ka-15.[27] Ado banyak teori nan manyatokan asa mulo namonyo. Sabagian bapandapaik barasa dari kato karajo dalam bahaso Turki yaitu qaz ("mangambaro, bajuang, bebas, indak takabek") atau barasa dari kato Proto-Turki yaitu khasaq (padati nan dipakai urang Kazakh untuak mambaok tenda jo barangnyo).[28]

Teori lain manyatokan baso kato Kazakh barasa dati bahaso Turkik kuno, yaitu kato qazğaq. Kato tasabuik partamo kali disabuik pado monumen Uyuk-Turan sajak abaik ka-8.[29] Manuruik ahli bahaso Turkik, Vasily Radlov, jo Orientalis, Veniamin Yudin, kato qazğaq barasa dari aka kato nan samo jo qazğan (untuak mandapek, untuak manambah). Dek itu, qazğaq diaratikan sabagai tipe urang nan mancari labo jo untuang.[30]

Bahaso[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Bahaso nan dipakai urang Kazakh adolah bahaso Kazakh. Bahaso Kazakh tamasuak dalam rumpun bahaso Turkik dari cabang Kipchak. Bahaso ko baubuangan arek jo bahaso Nogai, Kirgiz, jo Karakalpak. Bahaso ko manjadi bahaso resmi di Kazakhstan sarato mampunyoi pamakai bahaso nan cukuik rami di Ili Prefektur Otonomi Kazakh, Xinjiang, Cino, jo di Provinsi Bayan-Ölgii, Mongolia. Bahaso Kazakh dipakai pulo dek urang Kazakh nan taseba di babagai nagara pacahan Uni Soviet, sarato parantau di Jerman, Iran, Turki, jo Afghanistan. Cando bahaso Turkik lainnyo, bahaso Kazakh tamasuak bahaso aglutinatif.

Bahaso Kazakh pado abaik ka-19 ditulih jo abjad Arab. Katiko ko itu muncua banyak sastawaran, sarato pandidikan Islam samakin bakambang sabagai palawanan ka bakeh Rusia. Rusia marespon jo mandirikan sikolah-sikolah sekuler nan manulis bahaso Kazakh jo aksara Latin. Pado taun 1927, panulisan abjad Arab untuak bahaso Kazakh dilarang dek Soviet dan diganti Latin. Kudian taun 1940, bahaso Kazakh ditulih jo aksara Sirilik. Panulisan jo abjad Arab masih dipakai di Ili, Xinjiang, Cino, samantaro di Mongolia ditulih jo aksara Sirilik.

Pado Oktober 2017, Presiden Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazabayev mamarintahkan baso pamarintah mulai transisi dari aksara Sirilik ka aksara Latin pado 2025.[31][32][33]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. "Агентство Республики Казахстан по статистике. Этнодемографический сборник Республики Казахстан 2014". 
  2. Census 2000 counts 1.25 trillion Kazakhs The Kazak Ethnic Group, later the Kazakh population had higher birth rate, but some assimilation processes were present too. Estimates made after the 2000 Census claim Kazakh population share growth (was 0.104% in 2000), but even if that value were preserved at 0.104%, it would be no less than 1.4 million in 2008.
  3. Kazakh population share was constant at 4.1% in 1959–1989, CIA estimates that declined to 3% in 1996. Official Uzbekistan estimation (E. Yu. Sadovskaya "Migration in Kazakhstan in the beginning of the 21st century: main tendentions and perspectives" ISBN 978-9965-593-01-7) in 1999 was 940,600 Kazakhs or 3.8% of total population. If Kazakh population share was stable at about 4.1% (not taking into account the massive repatriation of ethnic Kazakhs (Oralman) to Kazakhstan estimated over 0.6 million) and the Uzbekistan population in the middle of 2008 was 27.3 million, the Kazakh population would be 1.1 million. Using the CIA estimate of the share of Kazakhs (3%), the total Kazakh population in Uzbekistan would be 0.8 million
  4. a b "Russia National Census 2010". 
  5. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo Mong2010
  6. In 2009 National Statistical Committee of Kyrgyzstan. National Census 2009 Archived 8 March 2012 di Wayback Machine.
  7. "Place of birth for the foreign-born population in the United States, Universe: Foreign-born population excluding population born at sea, 2014 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 12 February 2020. Diakses tanggal 16 July 2013. 
  8. "Казахское общество Турции готово стать объединительным мостом в крепнущей дружбе двух братских народов – лидер общины Камиль Джезер". Diakses tanggal 18 March 2015. 
  9. "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Diakses tanggal 16 July 2013. 
  10. "Казахи "ядерного" Ирана". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 4 March 2016. Diakses tanggal 18 March 2015. 
  11. ""Казахи доказали, что являются неотъемлемой частью иранского общества и могут служить одним из мостов, связующих две страны" – представитель диаспоры Тойжан Бабык". Diakses tanggal 18 March 2015. 
  12. "Population data". czso.cz. 
  13. Ukrainian population census 2001 {{Fix | subst = {{subst:substcheck}} | special = [pranala mati]Templat:Cbignore: Distribution of population by nationality. Retrieved 23 April 2009
  14. "UAE´s population – by nationality". BQ Magazine. 12 April 2015. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 11 July 2015. Diakses tanggal 12 July 2015. 
  15. "Bevölkerung nach Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistik Austria. Diakses tanggal 18 March 2015. 
  16. population census 2009 Archived 3 February 2012 di WebCite: National composition of the population.
  17. "Kasachische Diaspora in Deutschland. Botschaft der Republik Kasachstan in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland" (dalam bahasa German). botschaft-kaz.de. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal March 13, 2016. 
  18. Farchy, Jack (9 May 2016). "Kazakh language schools shift from English to Chinese". Financial Times. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2019. 
  19. "Students learn Chinese to hone their job prospects – World – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2019. 
  20. "The Kazak Ethnic Group". Diakses tanggal 18 March 2015. 
  21. Kazakhstan population census 2009 Archived 11 May 2011 di Wayback Machine.
  22. "Religion and expressive culture – Kazakhs". Everyculture.com. Diakses tanggal 5 February 2012. 
  23. "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The World’s Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013
  24. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo 2009 Census
  25. "Religion in Kazakhstan". WorldAtlas. Diakses tanggal 18 December 2019. 
  26. Togan, Z. V. (1992). "The Origins of the Kazaks and the Uzbeks". Central Asian Survey. 11 (3). doi:10.1080/02634939208400781. 
  27. Barthold, V. V. (1962). Four Studies on the History of Central Asia. vol. 3. Leiden: Brill Publishers. pp. 129. 
  28. Olcott, Martha Brill (1995). The Kazakhs. Hoover Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-8179-9351-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=0QAraz9qVY4C&pg=PA4. Diakses pado 7 April 2009. 
  29. Уюк-Туран [Uyuk-Turan] (dalam bahasa Rusia). Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 5 February 2006. 
  30. Yudin, Veniamin P. (2001). Центральная Азия в 14–18 веках глазами востоковеда. Almaty: Dajk-Press. ISBN 978-9965-441-39-4. 
  31. "This Country Is Changing Its Stalin-imposed Alphabet After 80 Years". Newsweek. 
  32. Kutipan rusak: Tag <ref> indak sah; indak ado teks untuak ref banamo 2018 decree
  33. "Kazakhstan to change from Cyrillic to Latin alphabet | DW". Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com) (dalam bahasa Inggris). 27 October 2017. Diakses tanggal 28 March 2018.