Panyakik koronavirus 2019

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Panyakik koronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)
Namo lain
  • Koronavirus
  • Korona
  • COVID
  • 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease
  • Novel coronavirus pneumonia[1]
  • Severe pneumonia with novel pathogens[2]
Symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 4.0.svg
Gejala COVID-19
Palafalan
SpesialisasiPanyakik infeksi
GejalaDamam, batuak, latiah, sasak angok, ilang sensasi raso; kadang-kadang indak bagejala[4][5][6]
KomplikasiPneumonia, sepsis, Sindrom distres panapasan akut, gagal ginja, cytokine release syndrome
Awitan2–14 ari (biasonyo 5) sajak tainfeksi
PanyababSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)
Faktor risikoPai raun, paparan virus
DiagnosisUji rRT-PCR, CT scan
PanagahanCuci tangan, manutuik wajah, karantina, pambatasan jarak fisik[7]
ParawatanSymptomatic and supportive
Frekuensi7.360.239[8] confirmed cases
Kamatian416.201 (6% of confirmed cases)[8]

Panyakik koronavirus 2019 atau tanamo jo COVID-19 (Inggirih: Coronavirus disease-2019) adolah panyakik dan disababkan dek virus SARS-CoV-2.[9] Panyakik ko partamo kali dikataui di Wuhan, Cino, pado Desember 2019, nan kudian bakambang manjadi pandemi.[10][11] Inggo 11 Juni 2020, dilaporkan alah ado 7,36 juta kasus di labiah dari 188 nagara jo teritori, sarato 416.000 kamatian. Ado 3,45 juta urang nan dilaporkan alah cegak.[8]

Virus nan manjadi panyabab panyakik ko taseba malalui kontak arek,[lower-alpha 1] paliang acok dek titiak liua (small droplets) nan dihasilkan dek batuak, basin, bahkan babicaro.[6][12][13] Virus lansuang tajatuah basamo titiak liau tadi, bukan malayang lamo di udaro. Virus dapek batahan dalam tubuah urang inggo mamunculan gejala dalam duo inggo 14 ari sajak partamo kali tapajan.[5][14] Paliang mamindah dalam tigo ari partamo sasudah gejala muncua dan tatap juo bakamungkinan bapindah sabalun muncua gejala atau bahkan pado urang nan indak manunjuakkan gejala samo sakali.[6][12]

Gejala umum dari panyakik ko antaro lain damam, batuak, latiah, sasak angok, sarato ilang kamampuan maidu jo maraso.[5][6][15] Banyak kasus tajumpoi dalam kondisi gejala ringan, tapi adopulo nan alah bakambang manjadi gejala barek cando sindrom distres respirasi akut, kagagalan banyak organ, syok sepsis, inggo pambakuan darah.[16][17][18]

Panagakan diagonosis nan marupokan baku ameh (gold standard) adolah malalui uji real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) dari sampel lendir nan didapek dari usap nasofaring (tabuang angok balakang iduang).[19] Pamindaian tomografi komputer (CT-Scan) dado dapek dilakukan untuak manunjang diagnosis pado urang barisiko tinggi tapajan. Walau baitu, pamindaian tasabuik indak disarankan sacaro rutin.[20][21] Upayo nan dapek dilakukan untuak maambek pamindahan panyakik ko adolah jo mancuci tangan, manjago jarak kontak jo urang lain, karantina atau isolasi diri, manutuik muluik katiko batuak, sarato manjago tangan dari manganai muko. Pamakaian masker kain disarankan untuak pamakaian umum di antaro urang nan sihaik atau indak bagejala. Samantaro pado urang nan manunjuakan gejala atau tanago medis, mamakai masker bedah atau masker medis lainnyo untuak maambek pamindahan sarato palinduangan diri.[7][22][23][24][25][26]

Sajauah ko WHO manyatokan baso alun ado ubek jo vaksin nan spesifik pado panyakik ko.[6] Pananganan panyakik dilakukan jo maubek gejala, parawatan pandukuang (suportif), isolasi, sarato uji cubo ubek.[27] Panyakik ko diumumkan sabagai pandemi global dek WHO pado 11 Maret 2020.[10] Inggo kini, pamindahan panyakik sacaro lokal alah tajadi di ampia sadoalah nagara di dunia.[28]

Tando jo gejala[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Gejala paliang umum dari COVID-19 adolah badan mandamam. Tampilan damam pado tiok urang dapek babeda-beda, bahkan indak mandamam samo sakali.[29][30] Walau baitu, katiko urang indak mandamam alun tantu inyo talapeh dari panyakik ko.[31]

Gejala COVID-19[4]
Gejala Jumlah kasus
Damam 83–99%
Batuak 59–82%
Ilang salero makan 40–84%
Latiah 44–70%
Sasak angok 31–40%
Batuak badahak 28–33%
Sakik otot jo pasandian 11–35%

Gejala lain nan muncua adolah bautak, ilang salero makan, latiah, sasak angok, badahak banyak, sarato sakik otot atau pasandian.[32][5][33] Gejala cando mual, muntah, atau paruik mancoro dapek pulo muncua di sabagian ketek urang. Gejala lain nan labiah jarang di antoronyo basin, iduang basalemo, padiah di tabuang angok, atau kalainan kulik.[34][35][36] Pado babarapo kasus di Cino bahkan ado nan muncua sakik dado jo dado badabok-dabok sabagai gejala partamonyo.[37][38] Bakurangnyo kamampuan maidu jo maraso dapek pulo muncua.[15][39][40][37]

Sarupo jo panyakik mamindah lainnyo, ado tenggang wakatu antaro masuaknyo virus inggo muncuanyo gejala. Hal iko disabuik sabagai maso inkubasi. Maso inkubasi biasonyo balansuang antaro limo atau anam ari.[6][41] Walau baitu, dapek pulo muncua dalam rantang sahari inggo ampek baleh ari. Pado 10% kasus dapek muncua dalam wakatu nan labiah lamo.[42][43]

Panyakik ko dapek pulo indak mamunculkan gejala samo sakali. Dek WHO, urang nan alah tamasuak virus dalam tubuahnyo, tapi indak mamunculkan gejala disabuik sabagai asimtomatik. Walau indak bagejala, urang nan asimtomatik dapek pulo manularan panyakik.[44][45][46]

Diagnosis[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Usap nasofaring (tabuang angok balakang iduang) untuak pareso COVID-19
Alaik pareso COVID-19 jo uji rRT-PCR dari CDC.[47]

WHO alah mampublikasikan protokol pamaresoan untuak panyakik ko.[48] Pamaresoan standar yaitu jo uji rRT-PCR.[49] Pamaresoan ko dilakukan jo maambiak sampel lendir dari nasofaring atau tabuang angok balakang iduang. Kok indak bisa, buliah jo dahak atau lendir dari iduang.[49][19][50] Hasia didapek dalam babarapo jam inggo duo ari.[51][52] Panaliti dari Cino nan alah mandapek mandapek strain virusnyo mambagikannyo ka banyak laboratorium di banyak nagara supayo dapek mamareso surang.[11][53][54] Pamaresoan lainnyo bisa jo sampel darah, tapi paralu duo kali ambiak jo rantang wakatu duo pakan.[55]

Panaliti dari Universitas Wuhan juo manyarankan untuak malakukan pamaresoan darah langkok samantaro pado kondisi indak bisa dilakukan pamaresoan COVID-19. Pasien nan kamungkinan tainfeksi mampunyoi gejala demam, pneumonia, hasia darah putiah nan normal atau randah, sarato ituang limfosit nan randah.[56]

Salain jo pamaresoan laboratorium, dapek pulo ditunjang jo pamindaian tomografi komputer (CT-Scan) dado. Namun, pamindaian ko indak disarankan rutin.[20][21] Pado pasien jo COVID-19 mampunyoi gambaran karuah kaco pado banyak lobus di kedua paru (bilateral multilobar ground-glass opacities) jo distribusi perifer, asimetris, inggo ka posterior, nan umum pado infeksi awal.[20] Pado kondisi panyakik nan samakin progresif, tampak dominasi subpleural, crazy paving (septum lobular manaba jo pangisian alveolar variabel), sarato konsolidasi (pamadekan).[20][57]

Pado akhia 2019, WHO manambah kode ICD-10 untuak panyakik ko dalam kategori darurat jo kode U07.1 kamatian dek infeksi SARS-CoV-2 takonfirmasi laboratorium jo U07.2 untuak kamatian manuruik diagnosis klinis COVID‑19 tanpa konfirmasi laboratorium tainfeksi SARS-CoV-2.[58]

Hasia pindaian tomografi komputer (CT-Scan) dado
Hasia pado fase progresif

Komplikasi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pasien COVID-19 dapek maalami komplikasi cando pneumonia, sindrom distres panapasan akut, kagagalan banyak organ, syok sepsis, inggo kamatian.[11][16][59][60] Komplikasi jantuang jo pambuluah darah dapek pulo muncua cando gagal jantuang, aritmia (gangguan irama jantuang), paradangan jantuang, inggo pambakuan darah.[61] Ado 20-30% pasien nan takanai COVID-19 manunjuakan karusakan liver.[62][63] Salain itu, kalainan saraf cando kajang, stroke, radang utak, inggo sindrom Guillan–Barre (kailangan fungsi motorik saraf).[64]

Catatan kaki[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Kontak arek diaratikan jo jarak fisik satu meter (~3,3 kaki) manuruik WHO[6] dan ~1,8 meter (anam kaki) manuruik CDC.[12]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

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