Kolekalsiferol

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Kolekalsiferol
INN: Colecalciferol
Cholecalciferol.svg
Cholecalciferol-vitamin-D3-from-xtal-3D-sticks.png
Data klinis
Palafalan /ˌkləkælˈsɪfərɒl/
Namo lain vitamin D3, activated 7-dehydrocholesterol
AHFS/Drugs.com Professional Drug Facts
Lisensi data
Kategori pado kahamilan
  • US: A (No risk in human studies) and C
Rute
masuak ubek
Malalui muluik, injeksi muskular
Kode ATC
Status legal
Status legal
Identifiers
Nomor CAS
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.612 Sunting ini di Wikidata

Kolekalsiferol atau nan labiah tanamo jo vitamin D3 adolah sajinih vitamin nan dibuek dek kulik katiko lah tapajan cahayo matoari sarato bisa didapek dari makanan.[1] Vitamin ko dapek baguno untuak maubek panyakik kakurangan vitamin D (defisiensi vitamin D) atau panyakik lain nan takaik, cando riketsia. Salin itu, baguno pulo untuak maubek hipofospatemia, hipoparatiroidisme, jo sindrom Fanconi.[2] Walau baitu, vitamin ko kurang efektif kok digunokan dek urang jo gangguan ginjal barek.[3] Vitamin D alah tamasuak dalam ubek wajib ado di layanan kasihatan manuruik daftar ubek WHO. Salain untuak manusia, vitamin ko dalam dosis tinggi dapek dipakai untuak racun mancik.[4][5][6]

Vitamin D bisa didapek tubuah jo suplemen oral ataupun malalui sinar UVB dari matoari.[7] Dari makanan, vitamin D bisa didapek dari ikan, talua, ati jawi, jo keju.[8] Vitamin D nan alah diubah dalam tubuah dapek baguno untuak maningkekan panyerapan kalsium di usus. Dosis vitamin D nan bakalabiahan dapek mambuek muntah, kabobolan, lamah bdan, sarato paniang. Risiko lainnyo bisa muncua batu ginjal.[9]

Biokimia[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Kolekasliferol marupokan ciek dari limo bantuak vitamin D.[10] Kolekalsiferol surang pado dasanyo adolah bantuak indak aktif. Inyo manjadi aktif malalui proses hidroksilasi salamo duo kali: partamo di liver, dek bantuan CYP2R1 atau CYP27A1 untuak barubah manjadi kalsifediol (25-OH vitamin D3). Nan kaduo proses hidroksilasi di ginjal jo bantuan CYP27B1 nan maubahnyo manjadi kalsitriol (1,25-(OH)2vitamin D3). Lalu, hasia parubahannyo dikabek di darah jo protein pangabek vitamin D (vitamin D-binding protein).[11]

Kolekalsiferol marupokan satu-satunyo jinih vitamin nan bisa didapek dari tubuah.[11] Walau baitu prosesnyo manjadi aktif paralu bantuan pulo dari sinar UVB. Kolekalsiferol mulonyo babantuak prekursor 7-Dehidrokolesterol di dalam epidermis kulik.[12] Malalui reaksi elektrosiklik, UVB nan bagalombang 290 inggo 315 nm, mahasiakan (sintesis) previtamin D3 (pre-kolekalsiferol) pado di galombang antaro 295 inggo 200 nm.[13]

Sinar matoari nan basinar UVB didapek antaro pagi jo siang ari. UVB nan efektif bagantuang pado wakatu, cuaca, musim, sarato lokasi awak barado. Rono kulik pun mampangaruahi lamo pajanan matoari untuak bisa efektif mambantuak vitamin D3. Rato-rato paralu 5–30 minik, duo kali sapakan untuak efektif. Pado urang barono kulik labiah galok, labiah banyak wakatu pajanan untuak labiah efektif. Baitupun di daerah nan kurang pancahayoan matoarinyo, paralu wakatu labiah lamo.[12]

Medis[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Kolekalsiferol nan sacaro alami ado dalam tubuah sangaik baguno untuak maatua kadar kalsium jo mamparancak kasihatan tulang jo pakambangannyo. Sabagai ubek, dapek dimakan sabagai suplementasi harian atau untuak maubek defisiensi vitamin D (kakurangan vitamin D). Ciek gram saroman jo 40.000.000 (40x106) IU.[14][15]

Jumlah suplemen nan diparalukan satiok urang bisa babeda-beda, bagantuang pado fisiologi tubuah, pajanan matoari, barek badan sarato rono kulik. Pado kondisi normal, maksimal paralu 4.000 IU dalam sahari.[16] Pado urang jo panyakik riketsia, jumlahnyo bisa labiah banyak lai. Dalam sakali pakai paralu dimakan atau disuntik 300.000 IU inggo 500.000 dalam sahari.[17]

Pado panalitian meta-analisis taun 2007 disimpulkan baso konsumsi harian 1000 inggo 2000 IU dapek managah atau mangurangi risiko kanker kolorektal.[18] Pado panalitian taun 2008 didapek baso jo 400 IU, indak ado efek dari suplementasi jo risiko kanker. Baru didapek efek pado dosis 1000 IU.[19] Walau baitu, suplementasi vitamin D3 alun disarankan untuak managah kanker dengk efeknyo masih ketek.[20]

Pambasmi amo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Amo cando mancik dapek dibasmi jo mamakai kolekalsiferol.[21] Mancik jo pengerat lainnyo labiah lamah jo kolekalsiferol dalam dosis tinggi dibandiangkan binatang lainnyo.[22] Kolekalsiferol dalam dosis tinggi mambuek tubuah mancik maalami hiperkalsemia (kadar kalsium tinggi dalam darah) nan mambuek jaringan lunak mangareh (kalsifikasi) inggo akhianyo gagal ginjal, gangguan jantuang, hipertensi, gangguan saraf, jo gangguan tabuang cerna.[23] Efek ko muncua dalam 18-36 jam sasudah tamakan dek mancik.[24]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Coulston, Ann M.; Boushey, Carol; Ferruzzi, Mario (2013). Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. Academic Press. p. 818. ISBN 9780123918840. https://books.google.ca/books?id=pmapb3rvzpYC&pg=PA818. Diakses pado 31 Maret 2020. 
  2. WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. 5 Agustus 2009. ISBN 9789241547659. 
  3. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 231. ISBN 9781284057560. 
  4. "Merck Veterinary Manual - Rodenticide Poisoning: Introduction". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-01-17. 
  5. Rizor, Suzanne E.; Arjo, Wendy M.; Bulkin, Stephan; Nolte, Dale L.. "Efficacy of Cholecalciferol Baits for Pocket Gopher Control and Possible Effects on Non-Target Rodents in Pacific Northwest Forests". Vertebrate Pest Conference (2006). USDA. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/39036/PDF. Diakses pado 31 Maret 2020. "0.15% cholecalciferol bait appears to have application for pocket gopher control.' Cholecalciferol can be a single high-dose toxicant or a cumulative multiple low-dose toxicant." 
  6. World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. 5 Agustus 2019. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. 
  7. "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2): 491S–499S. 1 Agustus 2008. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S. PMID 18689389. 
  8. "Office of Dietary Supplements - Vitamin D". ods.od.nih.gov. 11 February 2016. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 31 December 2016. Diakses tanggal 31 March 2020. 
  9. "Cholecalciferol (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 30 December 2016. Diakses tanggal 31 March 2020. 
  10. Templat:DorlandsDict
  11. a b "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2): 491S–499S. 1 Agustus 2008. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S. PMID 18689389. 
  12. a b "Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health". Dermato-Endocrinology 5 (1): 51–108. 1 Januari 2013. doi:10.4161/derm.24494. PMID 24494042. 
  13. "Spectral character of sunlight modulates photosynthesis of previtamin D3 and its photoisomers in human skin". Science 216 (4549): 1001–3. 1 Mai 1982. doi:10.1126/science.6281884. PMID 6281884. https://semanticscholar.org/paper/bf75ab67b4bde975899cf8e02b8b1ebe5f85b644. 
  14. "From vitamin D to hormone D: fundamentals of the vitamin D endocrine system essential for good health". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 88 (2): 491S–499S. 1 Agustus 2008. doi:10.1093/ajcn/88.2.491S. PMID 18689389. 
  15. DRIs for Calcium and Vitamin D Archived 2010-12-24 di Wayback Machine.
  16. "Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and safety". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69 (5): 842–56. 1 Mai 1999. doi:10.1093/ajcn/69.5.842. PMID 10232622. 
  17. "Effect of intramuscular cholecalciferol megadose in children with nutritional rickets". Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 29 (6): 687–92. 1 Juni 2016. doi:10.1515/jpem-2015-0031. PMID 26913455. 
  18. "Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis". American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32 (3): 210–6. 1 Maret 2007. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2006.11.004. PMID 17296473. 
  19. "Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine 354 (7): 684–96. 1 Pebruari 2006. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055222. PMID 16481636. http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/43r416nc. 
  20. "Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1 (1): CD007470. 1 Januari 2014. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd007470.pub3. PMID 24414552. 
  21. "CHOLECALCIFEROL: A UNIQUE TOXICANT FOR RODENT CONTROL". Proceedings of the Eleventh Vertebrate Pest Conference (1984). University of Nebraska Lincoln. 1 Maret 1984. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/vpc11/22/. Diakses pado 31 Maret 2020. "Cholecalciferol is an acute (single-feeding) and/or chronic (multiple-feeding) rodenticide toxicant with unique activity for controlling commensal rodents including anticoagulant-resistant rats. Cholecalciferol differs from conventional acute rodenticides in that no bait shyness is associated with consumption and time to death is delayed, with first dead rodents appearing 3-4 days after treatment." 
  22. Rizor, Suzanne E.; Arjo, Wendy M.; Bulkin, Stephan; Nolte, Dale L.. "Efficacy of Cholecalciferol Baits for Pocket Gopher Control and Possible Effects on Non-Target Rodents in Pacific Northwest Forests". Vertebrate Pest Conference (2006). USDA. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/39036/PDF. Diakses pado 31 Maret 2020. "0.15% cholecalciferol bait appears to have application for pocket gopher control.' Cholecalciferol can be a single high-dose toxicant or a cumulative multiple low-dose toxicant." 
  23. "Merck Veterinary Manual - Rodenticide Poisoning: Introduction". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 2007-01-17. 
  24. "Field efficacy of cholecalciferol gel baits for possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) control". New Zealand Journal of Zoology 33 (3): 221–8. 5 Agustus 2006. doi:10.1080/03014223.2006.9518449.