Charles Darwin

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Charles Robert Darwin
Three quarter length studio photo showing Darwin's characteristic large forehead and bushy eyebrows with deep set eyes, pug nose and mouth set in a determined look. He is bald on top, with dark hair and long side whiskers but no beard or moustache. His jacket is dark, with very wide lapels, and his trousers are a light check pattern. His shirt has an upright wing collar, and his cravat is tucked into his waistcoat which is a light fine checked pattern.
Darwin, barumua 45 pado 1854, sangkek tu bakarajo untuak publikasi Asa usua Spesies[1]
Lahia Charles Robert Darwin
12 Februari 1809
The Mount, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Inggris
Maningga 19 April 1882 (umua 73)
Rumah Down, Kent, Inggirih
Tampek tingga Inggris
Kawarganegaraan Baritania Rayo
Kabangsaan Baritania Rayo
Bidang Sijarah alam, geologi, biologi
Institusi pandidikan tinggi:
University of Edinburgh Medical School (ubek)
Christ's College, Cambridge (Universitas Cambridge) (BA)
lembaga profesional:
Geological Society of London
Pambimbiang
akademik
John Stevens Henslow
Adam Sedgwick
Dikana dek The Voyage of the Beagle
Asa usua Spesies
Evolusi malalui
Seleksi alam,
Niniak muyang basamo
Dipangaruahi Alexander von Humboldt
John Herschel
Charles Lyell
Mampangaruahi Joseph Dalton Hooker
Thomas Henry Huxley
George Romanes
Ernst Haeckel
Sir John Lubbock
Pangharagoan
Pasangan Emma Darwin (m. 1839) «Templat:Start-date»"Marriage: Emma Darwin to Charles Darwin" Location:Templat:Placename/adr (linkback://min.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin)
Tando tangan
"Charles Darwin", with the surname underlined by a downward curve that mimics the curve of the initial "C"

Charles Robert Darwin, FRS FRGS  [2] (/ˈdɑrwɪn/;[3] 12 Februari 1809 – 19 April 1882) adolah surang naturalis jo ahli geologi Inggirih,[4] paliang tanamo untuak kontribusinyo kapado teori evolusi.[I] Baliau manatapkan baso sadoalah spesies dari kahidupan alah diturunkan dari wakatu ka wakatu dari niniak muyang basamo,[5] dan dalam publikasi basamo jo Alfred Russel Wallace mangenalkan teori ilmiah baso pola pacabangan evolusi dihasiakan dari sabuah proses nan liau sabuik seleksi alam, di ma pajuangan untuak eksistensi mampunyoi efek nan samo jo seleksi buatan nan talibaik dalam pamuliaan selektif.[6]

Darwin manabikan teori evolusi jo bukti kuek dalam buku taun 1859 nyo On the Origin of Species, maatasi panulakan ilmiah dari konsep awa dari transmutasi spesies.[7][8] Pado taun 1870-an, komunitas ilmiah dan banyak dari masyarakaik umum manarimo evolusi sabagai fakta. Namun, banyak nan manyukoi panjalehan nan manantang dan itu indak diakui sampai muncuanyo sintesis evolusi modern dari taun 1930-an sampai ka 1950-an baso konsensus nan laewh dikambangan di ma seleksi alam adolah mekanisme dasa evolusi.[9][10] Dalam bantuak nan dimodifikasi, panamuan ilmiah Darwin adolah teori pamasatu ilimu kahidupan, manjalehan karagaman kahidupan.[11][12]

Minaik awa Darwin di alam mambueknyo maabaikan pandidikan kadokteran di Universitas Edinburgh; sabaliaknyo, liau mambantu untuak mangkaji invertebrata lauik. Studi di Universitas Cambridge (Christ's College) mandorong sumangek untuak ilimu alam.[13] Palayanan limo taunnyo mengukuahannyo sabagai ahli geologi takamuko nan observasi jo teorinyo mandukuang ide uniformitarian Charles Lyell, dan publikasi jurnal tantang palayaran tu mambueknyo tanamo subagai panulih populer.[14]

Binguang jo distribusi geografis binatang lia jo fosil nan liau kumpuaan dalam palayaran, Darwin mamulai pangkajian rinci pado taun 1838 sarato manyusun teorinyo tantang seleksi alam.[15] Walaupun liau mambahas ide-idenyo jo naturalis-naturalis lainnyo, liau butuah wakatu untuak panalitian dan karajo geologinyo pun manjadi prioritas juo.[16] Liau manulis teorinyo pado taun 1858 katiko Alfred Russel Wallace mangirimnyo esai nan manggambaran ide nan samo, mandorong sagiro publikasi basamo dari kaduo teorinyo.[17] Karya Darwin mandirian panurunan jo modifikasi evolusioner sabagai panjalehan ilmiah nan dominan dari diversifikasi di alam.[9] Pado taun 1871, liau mamareso evolusi manusia jo seleksi alam dalam The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, diikuti dek The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Panalitiannyo pado tanaman ditabikan dalam sarangkaian buku, dan dalam buku trakhianyo, liau mamareso cacing tanah dan efeknyo pado tanah.[18]

Darwin manjadi tanamo sacaro internasional sasudah digambaran sabagai salah satu tokoh paliang bapangaruah dalam sijarah manusia,[19] dan kaunggulannyo sabagai ilmuwan dihoromati jo pamakaman di Westminster Abbey.[20]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Freeman 2007, hlm. 76.
  2. a b "Fellows of the Royal Society". London: Royal Society. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 16 Maret 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150316060617/https://royalsociety.org/about-us/fellowship/fellows/. 
  3. "Darwin" entry in Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins Publishers, 1998.
  4. Desmond, Moore & Browne 2004
  5. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Viking. pp. 8–11. ISBN 978-0-670-02053-9. 
  6. Larson 2004, pp. 79–111
  7. Coyne, Jerry A. (2009). Why Evolution is True. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 17. ISBN 0-19-923084-6. "In The Origin, Darwin provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of life. Much of that book presents evidence that not only supports evolution, but at the same time refutes creationism. In Darwin's day, the evidence for his theories was compelling, but not completely decisive." 
  8. Glass, Bentley (1959). Forerunners of Darwin. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. iv. ISBN 0-8018-0222-9. "Darwin's solution is a magnificent synthesis of evidence...a synthesis...compelling in honesty and comprehensiveness" 
  9. a b van Wyhe 2008
  10. Bowler 2003, pp. 178–179, 338, 347
  11. The Complete Works of Darwin Online – Biography. darwin-online.org.uk. Retrieved 2006-12-15
    Dobzhansky 1973
  12. As Darwinian scholar Joseph Carroll of the University of Missouri–St. Louis puts it in his introduction to a modern reprint of Darwin's work: "The Origin of Species has special claims on our attention. It is one of the two or three most significant works of all time—one of those works that fundamentally and permanently alter our vision of the world...It is argued with a singularly rigorous consistency but it is also eloquent, imaginatively evocative, and rhetorically compelling." Carroll, Joseph, ed (2003). On the origin of species by means of natural selection. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview. p. 15. ISBN 1-55111-337-6. 
  13. Leff 2000, About Charles Darwin
  14. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 210, 284–285
  15. Desmond & Moore 1991, pp. 263–274
  16. van Wyhe 2007, pp. 184, 187
  17. Beddall, B. G. (1968). "Wallace, Darwin, and the Theory of Natural Selection" (PDF). Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2): 261–323. doi:10.1007/BF00351923. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n1gh3n4474th3385/fulltext.pdf. 
  18. Freeman 1977
  19. "Special feature: Darwin 200 ", New Scientist. Diakses pado 2 April 2011.
  20. Leff 2000, Darwin's Burial
    van Wyhe 2008b, pp. 60–61