Ateisme

Wikipedia Minangkabau - Lubuak aka tapian ilimu
Loncat ke navigasi Loncat ke pencarian
Panulih Parancih abaik ka-18, Baron d'Holbach adolah salah saurang partamo nan manyabuik dirinyo ateis. Dalam buku Système de la Nature (1770), inyo malukihkan jagaik raya dalam arati materialisme filsafaik, determinisme nan sampik, dan ateisme. Buku iko jo bukunyo Common Sense (1772) dikutuak dek Parlemen Paris, dan salinan-salinannyo dibaka di muko umum.

Ateisme adolah pandangan filosofi nan indak mampicayoi adonyo Tuhan jo dewa-dewi[1] ataupun panulakan pado teisme.[2][3] Dalam arati paliang laweh, bahasonyo katiadoan kapicayoan pado adonyo dewa atau Tuhan.[4][5]

Istilah ateisme barasa dari bahaso Yunani ἄθεος (átheos), nan sacaro peyoratif digunokan untuak marujuak pado siapopun nan kapicayoannyo batantangan jo agamo/kapicayoan nan alah mapan di lingkuangannyo. Jo manyebanyo pamikiran bebas, skeptisisme ilmiah, jo kritik pado agamo, istilah ateis mulai dispesifikasi untuak marujuak pado inyo nan indak picayo pado tuhan. Urang nan partamo kali mangaku sabagai "ateis" muncua pado abaik ka-18. Pado zaman kini, sakitar 2,3% populasi dunia mangaku sabagi ateis, manokalo 11,9% mangaku sabagai nonteis.[6] Sakitar 65% urang Japang mangaku sabagai ateis, agnostik, ataupun urang nan indak baragamo; dan sakitar 48%-nyo di Rusia.[7] Persentase komunitas tasabuik di Uni Eropa bakisar antaro 6% (Italia) inggo 85% (Swedia).[7]

Banyak ateis basikap skeptis pado adonyo fenomena paranormal dek kurangnyo bukti empiris. Nan lain maagiah argumen jo dasar filosofis, sosial, atau sijarah.

Pado kabudayoan Barat, ateis acok diasumsikan sabagai indak baragamo (ireligius).[8] Babarapo aliran Agamo Buddha indak panah manyabuik istilah 'Tuhan' dalam babagai upacara ritual, tapi dalam Agamo Buddha konsep katuhanan nan dimukasuikkan mamakai istilah Nibbana.[9] Dek karanonyo agamo iko acok disabaik agamo ateistik.[10] Bago kok banyak dari nan mandefinisikan dirinyo sabagai ateis condong kapado filosofi sekuler humanisme,[11] rasionalisme, dan naturalisme,[12] indak ado ideologi atau parilaku spesifik nan dijunjuang dek sadoalah ateis.[13]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Rowe, William L. (1998). "Atheism". di dalam Edward Craig. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
  2. Nielsen, Kai (2009). "Atheism". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/40634/atheism. Diakses pado 28 April 2007.  "Atheism, in general, the critique and denial of metaphysical beliefs in God or spiritual beings.... a more adequate characterization of atheism consists in the more complex claim that to be an atheist is to be someone who rejects belief in God for [reasons that depend] on how God is being conceived."
  3. Edwards, Paul (1967). "Atheism". The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Vol. 1. Collier-MacMillan. p. 175. "On our definition, an 'atheist' is a person who rejects belief in God, regardless of whether or not his reason for the rejection is the claim that 'God exists' expresses a false proposition. People frequently adopt an attitude of rejection toward a position for reasons other than that it is a false proposition. It is common among contemporary philosophers, and indeed it was not uncommon in earlier centuries, to reject positions on the ground that they are meaningless. Sometimes, too, a theory is rejected on such grounds as that it is sterile or redundant or capricious, and there are many other considerations which in certain contexts are generally agreed to constitute good grounds for rejecting an assertion.". 
  4. Artikel pendek religioustolerance.org pado Definitions of the term "Atheism" manyatokan baso indak ado konsensus soal definisi istilah ateisme. Simon Blackburn pado The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy: "Atheism. Either the lack of belief in a god, or the belief that there is none".
  5. Runes, Dagobert D.(editor) (1942 edition). Dictionary of Philosophy. New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams & Co. Philosophical Library. ISBN 0064634612. http://www.ditext.com/runes/a.html. Diakses pado 1 Pebruari 2010. "(a) the belief that there is no God; (b) Some philosophers have been called "atheistic" because they have not held to a belief in a personal God. Atheism in this sense means "not theistic". The former meaning of the term is a literal rendering. The latter meaning is a less rigorous use of the term though widely current in the history of thought" 
  6. "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2005". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2005. Diakses tanggal 2007-04-15. 
    • 2.3% Atheists: Persons professing atheism, skepticism, disbelief, or irreligion, including the militantly antireligious (opposed to all religion).
    • 11.9% Nonreligious: Persons professing no religion, nonbelievers, agnostics, freethinkers, uninterested, or dereligionized secularists indifferent to all religion but not militantly so.
  7. a b Zuckerman, Phil. "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns", The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2005.
  8. Cline, Austin (2005). "Buddhism and Atheism". about.com. Diakses tanggal 2006-10-21. 
  9. "Ceramah Bhikkhu Uttamo - Ketuhanan dalam agama Buddha". Samaggi Phala. Diakses tanggal 2010-08-18. [pautan nonaktif salamonyo]
  10. Kedar, Nath Tiwari (1997). Comparative Religion. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. hal. 50. ISBN 81-208-0293-4. 
  11. Honderich, Ted (Ed.) (1995). "Humanism". The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. p 376. ISBN 0-19-866132-0.
  12. Fales, Evan. "Naturalism and Physicalism", in Martin 2007, pp. 122–131.
  13. Baggini 2003, pp. 3–4.