Ruth Bader Ginsburg

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Ruth Bader Ginsburg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 2016 portrait.jpg
Hakim Aguang
Amerika Sarikat
Petahana
Assumed office
10 Agustus 1993
Ditunjuak dek Bill Clinton
Didaului jo Byron White
Hakim Pangadilan Bandiang Amerika Sarikat untuak Wilayah District of Columbia
Maso jabatan
30 Juni 1980 – 9 Agustus 1993
Ditunjuak dek Jimmy Carter
Didaului jo Harold Leventhal
Digantian dek David Tatel
Data paribadi
Lahia Joan Ruth Bader
15 Maret 1933 (umua 87)
Brooklyn, New York City, U.S.
Pasangan hiduik Martin Ginsburg (m. 1954–2020) «Templat:Start-date–end+1: (2020-06-27UTC11:11)»"Marriage: Martin Ginsburg to Ruth Bader Ginsburg" Location:Templat:Placename/adr (linkback://min.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruth_Bader_Ginsburg)
Anak
Tando tangan

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (lahia di New York City, 15 Maret 1933; umua 87 taun) adolah surang hakim, pangajar, jo pangacara Amerika Sarikat. Inyo alah manjabaik subagai Hakim Aguang pado Mahkamah Aguang Amerika Sarikat sajak tahun 1993. Sabalunnyo inyo manjabaik pulo sabagai hakim pado Pangadilan Bandiang Amerika Sarikat untuak Wilayah District of Columbia sarato pangajar ilmu hukum pado Fakultas Hukum Universitas Rutgers jo Fakultas Hukum Universitas Columbia. Inyo tanamo dek pandangan jo filosofi hukumnyo nan basipaik liberal taadok Konstitusi Amerika Sarikat.

Kaidupan awal[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Joan Ruth Bader laia pado 15 Maret 1933 di Brooklyn, New York City. Ayahnyo, Nathan Bader, adolah surang imigran Yahudi dari Odessa, Ukraina; ibunyo, Celia, bakaturunan Yahudi Austria.[1]

Ruth manjalani pandidiakan di James Madison High School, Brooklyn.[2] Ibu Ruth mandarito kanker salamo inyo di SMA dan maningga sahari sabalun kalulusannyo dari sakolah. Salapeh SMA, Ruth masuak ka Universitas Cornell di Ithaca. Di Cornell, inyo batamu suaminyo, Martin D. Ginsburg. Ruth lulus jo gala B.A. dalam ilmu pamarintahan pado bulan Juni 1954, dan manikah jo Martin sabulan sasudahnyo.[3] Inyo maikuik suaminyo ka Oklahoma, tampek Martin badinas pado Reserve Officers' Training Corps, dan bakarajo pado Social Security Administration. Putrinyo Jane laia di sinan pado tahun 1955.[4]

Pado tahun 1956, Ginsburg masuak Fakultas Hukum Universitas Harvard, manjadi salah satu dari sambilan mahasiswi dari 500 urang di angkatannyo.[5] Inyo pindah ka New York City salapeh suaminyo mandapek karajo di sinan dan masuak ka Fakultas Hukum Universitas Columbia. Inyo lulus dari Columbia pado tahun 1959, mandapek paringkek partamo di angkatannyo.[6]

Karir akademik jo advokasi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Ginsburg kapayahan mandapek karajo di bidang hukum dek karano jinih kalaminnyo. Pado tahun 1960, inyo ditulak untuak bakarajo subagai karani hukum pado Hakim Agung Felix Frankfurter.[7][8][lower-alpha 1] Ateh takanan guru besar Columbia Gerald Gunther, inyo mandapek karajo pado Hakim Edmund L. Palmieri di Pangadilan Negeri Amerika Sarikat untuk Daerah Salatan New York, dan batahan salamo duo tahun.[4]

Pado tahun 1961, Ginsburg manjadi panaliti di Fakultas Hukum Columbia; panalitiannyo manyangkuik tantang hukum acara perdata di Swedia.[9] Pado tahun 1963, inyo diangkek manjadi dosen hukum acara perdata di Fakultas Hukum Universitas Rutgers di New Jersey. Pado maso inyo diangkek, anyo ado kurang labiah 20 dosen hukum wanita di di Amerika Sarikat.[10] Di Rutgers, Ginsburg ikuik mandirian Women's Rights Law Reporter, sabuah jurnal hukum nan fokus mangkaji hak-hak wanita.[11]

Ginsburg pindah maaja ka Columbia pado tahun 1972. Inyo ikuk talibat pado proyek hak-hak wanita di American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Sabagai panasihat hukum utamo organisasi ko dalam urusan hak-hak wanita, Ginsburg mamanangan anam kasus diskriminasi kalamin di Mahkamah Agung antaro tahun 1973 inggo 1976; anyo ciek nan dikalahkan.[12] Kasus-kasus nan dimanangan Ginsburg antaro lain Frontiero v. Richardson (1973, mambatalan diskriminasi tunjangan parumahan untuak anggota wanita di Angkatan Basanjato); Weinberger v. Wiesenfeld (1975; surang duda indak dibuliahan mandapek tunjangan jando Social Security); jo Duren v. Missouri (1978; mauji konstitusionalitas hak sukarila wanita dalam tugas juri).[13][13][14][15]

Karir kahakiman[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Ginsburg diangkek manjadi hakim pado Pangadilan Bandiang Amerika Sarikat untuak Wilayah District of Columbia pado bulan April 1980 dek Presiden Jimmy Carter. Inyo manggantian mandiang Hakim Harold Leventhal. Senat mangonfirmasi pangangkatannyo pado bulan Juni dan inyo mulai bertugas tanggal 19 Juni. Salapeh pangangkatan Ginsburg ka Mahkamah Aguang, posisinyo digantian dek Hakim David Tatel.[16][17]

Pado bulan Juni 1993, Presiden Bill Clinton maangkek Ginsburg manjadi Hakim Aguang untuak manggantian Hakim Aguang Byron White nan alah masuak maso pensiun. Inyo adalah hakim aguang padusi nan kaduo sapanjang sajarah Mahkamah Aguang, dan hakim bakaturunan Yahudi nan partamo sajak Hakim Aguang Abe Fortas pado tahun 1969.[18][19] American Bar Association, organisasi pangacara nan paliang gadang di Amerika, maagiah predikat well-qualified pado Ginsburg. Senat mangonfirmasi Ginsburg malalui pamungutan suaro 96-3 pado 3 Agustus 1993; inyo maangkek sumpah saminggu kamudian.

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. "Book Discussion on Sisters in Law" Presenter: Linda Hirshman, author. Politics and Prose Bookstore. BookTV, Washington. September 3, 2015. 27 minutes in; retrieved September 12, 2015 C-Span website Archived March 5, 2016, di Wayback Machine.
  2. "Ruth Bader Ginsburg". The Oyez Project. Chicago-Kent College of Law. Diakses tanggal August 24, 2009. 
  3. Hensley, Thomas R.; Hale, Kathleen; Snook, Carl (2006). The Rehnquist Court: Justices, Rulings, and Legacy. ABC-CLIO Supreme Court Handbooks (edisi ke-hardcover). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 92. ISBN 1576072002. https://books.google.com/?id=iGLZyxI_w9kC&pg=PA92. Diakses pado 1 Oktober 2009. 
  4. a b Margolick, David (June 25, 1993). "Trial by Adversity Shapes Jurist's Outlook". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal February 21, 2016. 
  5. Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (2004). "The Changing Complexion of Harvard Law School". Harvard Women's Law Journal 27: 303. http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlg/vol27/bader-ginsburg.pdf. Diakses pado 9 Desember 2012. 
  6. Magill, M. Elizabeth (November 11, 2013). "At the U.S. Supreme Court: A Conversation with Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg". Stanford Lawyer Fall 2013 (89). https://law.stanford.edu/stanford-lawyer/articles/legal-matters/. 
  7. a b Cooper, Cynthia L. (Summer 2008). "Women Supreme Court Clerks Striving for "Commonplace"". Perspectives 17 (1): 18–22. http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/perspectives_magazine/women_perspectives_summer08_women_sct_clerks.authcheckdam.pdf. Diakses pado 9 Juli 2016. 
  8. Greenhouse, Linda (August 30, 2006). "Women Suddenly Scarce Among Justices' Clerks". The New York Times (registration required). Diakses tanggal June 27, 2010. 
  9. Riesenfeld, Stefan A. (June 1967). "Reviewed Works: Civil Procedure in Sweden by Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Anders Bruzelius; Civil Procedure in Italy by Mauro Cappelletti, Joseph M. Perillo". Columbia Law Review 67 (6): 1176–78. doi:10.2307/1121050. 
  10. Liptak, Adam (February 10, 2010). "Kagan Says Her Path to Supreme Court Was Made Smoother by Ginsburg's". The New York Times. Diakses tanggal July 9, 2016. 
  11. "About the Reporter". Women's Rights Law Reporter. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal July 8, 2008. Diakses tanggal June 29, 2008. Founded in 1970 by now-Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg and feminist activists, legal workers, and law students ... 
  12. Lewis, Neil A. (June 15, 1993). "The Supreme Court: Woman in the News; Rejected as a Clerk, Chosen as a Justice: Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Diakses tanggal September 17, 2016. 
  13. a b Williams, Wendy W. (2013). "Ruth Bader Ginsburg's Equal Protection Clause: 1970–80". Columbia Journal of Gender and Law 25: 41–49. http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2253&context=facpub. Diakses pado 13 Maret 2016. 
  14. Millhiser, Ian (August 30, 2011). "Justice Ginsburg: If I Were Nominated Today, My Women's Rights Work For The ACLU Would Probably Disqualify Me". ThinkProgress. Diakses tanggal June 1, 2017. 
  15. Von Drehle, David (July 19, 1993). "Redefining Fair With a Simple Careful Assault – Step-by-Step Strategy Produced Strides for Equal Protection". The Washington Post; retrieved August 24, 2009.
  16. "Judges of the D. C. Circuit Courts". Historical Society of the District of Columbia Circuit. Diakses tanggal February 19, 2016. 
  17. Beaupre Gillespie, Becky (July 27, 2016). "My Chicago Law Moment: 50 Years Later, Federal Appellate Judge David Tatel, '66, Still Thinks About the Concepts He Learned as a 1L". www.law.uchicago.edu (dalam bahasa Inggris). University of Chicago Law School. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal December 8, 2016. Diakses tanggal June 9, 2017. 
  18. Richter, Paul (June 15, 1993). "Clinton Picks Moderate Judge Ruth Ginsburg for High Court: Judiciary: President calls the former women's rights activist a healer and consensus builder. Her nomination is expected to win easy Senate approval". Los Angeles Times. Diakses tanggal February 19, 2016. 
  19. Rudin, Ken (May 8, 2009). "The 'Jewish Seat' On The Supreme Court". NPR. Diakses tanggal February 19, 2016. 

Daftar pustaka[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]


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