Richard Wagner

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Richard Wagner taun 1871
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Wilhelm Richard Wagner (/ˈvɑːɡnər/; Jerman: [ˈʁiçaʁt ˈvaːɡnɐ]; 22 Mei 1813 – 13 Februari 1883) adolah surang pangarang musik banso Jerman, sutradara teater, ahli polemik, jo pamimpin orkestra nan tamasua dek opera atau, labiah tapek, "drama musik".

Indak samo jo pangarang opera lain, Wagner mangarang kaduo-duo libreto jo musik untuak satiok karya pantasnyo. Inyo mambuek namo partamo kali sabagai pangarang karya aliran romantisme dek Weber jo Meyerbeer. Sudah tu Wagner mambuek parubahan gadang malalui konsep Gesamtkunstwerk ("karya seni nan total")—dangan konsep ko, Weber mancari jalan untuak manyatuan aspek seni sair, visual, musik jo drama, dangan musik nan manjadi aspek subsidiari drama, nan dikatangahan dalam sabuah siri esei antaro taun 1849 jo 1852. Wagner mambuek realisasi pakaro ko dalam bagian partamo sabuah siklus ampek opera, Der Ring des Nibelungen (Lingkaran Nibelung).

Karangan-karangannyo, tautamo di wakatu kamudian, tanamo dek tekstur, harmoni musik rancak, jo orkestrasi, jo juo panggunoan leitmotif—frase musik nan takaik jo watak-watak individu, tampek, idea atau unsua-unsua plot. Kamajuan nan dibueknyo jo bahaso musik, sarupo kromatisme nan ekstrem jo tonaliti nan capek barubah, banyaik mampangaruahi pakambangan musik klasik. Karyanyo, Tristan und Isolde, kadang-kadang dikatoan sabagai titik pamuloan musik meden.

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Sumber[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

(Inggirih)

Karya prosa dek Wagner

  • Wagner, Richard (ed. Dieter Borchmeyer) (1983; in German), Richard Wagner Dichtungen und Schriften, 10 vols. Frankfurt am Main.
  • Wagner, Richard (ed. and tr. Stewart Spencer and Barry Millington) (1987), Selected Letters of Richard Wagner, London: Dent. ISBN 0-460-04643-8; W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 978-0-393-02500-2.
  • Wagner, Richard (tr. Andrew Gray) (1992), My Life, New York: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-80481-6. Wagner's partly unreliable autobiography, covering his life to 1864, written between 1865 and 1880 and first published privately in German in a small edition between 1870 and 1880. The first (edited) public edition appeared in 1911. Gray's translation is the most comprehensive available.
  • Wagner, Richard, Collected Prose Works (tr. W. Ashton Ellis).
Wagner, Richard (1994c), vol. 1 The Artwork of the Future and Other Works, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9752-4.
Wagner, Richard (1995d), vol. 2 Opera and Drama, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-9765-3.
Wagner, Richard (1995c), vol. 3 Judaism in Music and Other Essays, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9766-1.
Wagner, Richard (1995a), vol. 4 Art and Politics, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9774-6.
Wagner, Richard (1995b), vol. 5 Actors and Singers, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9773-9.
Wagner, Richard (1994a), vol. 6 Religion and Art, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9764-7.
Wagner, Richard (1994b), vol. 7 Pilgrimage to Beethoven and Other Essays, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9763-0.
Wagner, Richard (1995e), vol. 8 Jesus of Nazareth and Other Writings, Lincoln (NE) and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-9780-7.

Other sources

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  • Magee, Bryan (2000), Wagner and Philosophy, London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9480-3.
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  • McClatchie, Stephen (2008), "Performing Germany in Wagner's Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg", in Grey (2008), 134–50.
  • Michotte, Edmond (ed. and tr. Herbert Weinstock) (1968), Richard Wagner's Visit to Rossini (Paris 1860): and an Evening at Rossini's in Beau-Sejour (Passy) 1858, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-52442-6.
  • Millington, Barry (ed.) (2001), The Wagner Compendium: A Guide to Wagner's Life and Music (revised edition), London: Thames and Hudson Ltd. ISBN 0-02-871359-1.
  • Millington, Barry (2008), "Der Ring des Nibelungen: conception and interpretation", in Grey (2008), 74–84.
  • Millington, Barry (undated a), "Wesendonck, Mathilde", in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (subscription only, accessed 20 July 2010).
  • Millington, Barry (undated b), "Walküre, Die", in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Stanley Sadie (ed.). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (subscription only, accessed 23 July 2010).
  • Millington, Barry (undated c), "Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Die", in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, Stanley Sadie (ed.). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online (subscription only, accessed 23 July 2010).
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  • Naumann, Emil (1876; in German), Italienische Tondichter, von Palestrina bis auf die Gegenwart, Berlin: R. Oppenheim. OCLC 12378618.
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  • Nietzsche, Friedrich (tr. Walter Kaufmann) (1967), "The Case of Wagner", in Nietzsche (tr. Kaufmann) The Birth of Tragedy and The Case of Wagner, Random House. ISBN 0-394-70369-3.
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  • Žižek, Slavoj (2009), "Foreword: Why is Wagner Worth Saving", in Adorno (2009), viii–xxvii.

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Opera[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Panulihan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • The Wagner Library. English translations of Wagner's prose works, including some of Wagner's more notable essays.


Lain[suntiang | suntiang sumber]