Kashmir

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Kashmir tabagi dek tigo nagara: Pakistan (bawarna hijau di peta), India (cokelat tuo), jo Cino (Aksai Chin di bagian timua lauik)

Kashmir adolah sabuah wilayah di utaro sub-benua India. Istilah Kashmir sacaro sijarah digambaran sabagai sabuah lambah di salatan dari ujuang paliang baraik barisan Himalaya. Sacaro politik, istilah Kashmir dijalehan sabagai wilayah nan labiah gadang nan tamasuak wilayah Jammu, Kashmir, jo Ladakh.

"Vale of Kashmir" utamo relatif randah jo sangaik subua, dikaliliangi dek gunuang nan lua biaso jo dialiri dek banyak aliran dari lambah-lambah. Inyo dikenal sabagai suatu tampek paliang indah spektakuler di dunia.

Srinagar, ibu kota kuno, taletak di dakek Danau Dal, jo takenal karano kanal jo rumah parahunyo. Srinagar (katinggian 1.600 m atau 5.200 kaki) balaku sabagai ibu kota musim paneh bagi banyak panakluak asiang nan mandapekan paneh di utaro India. Tapek di luar kota tadapek taman Shalimar nan indah dibuek dek Jahangir, kaisar Mughal, pado 1619.

Wilayah iko tabagi dek tigo nagara: Pakistan mangontrol baraik lauik, India mangontrol tangah jo bagian salatan Jammu jo Kashmir, jo Republik Rakyat Tiongkok manguasai timua lauik (Aksai Chin). Meskipun wilayah iko dalam praktiknya diatur dek katigo nagara tasabuik, India indak pernah mangakui sacaro rasmi wilayah nan diakui dek Pakistan jo Cino. Pakistan mamandang saluruah wilayah Kashmir sabagai wilayah nan dipatantangan, jo indak manganggap klaim India ateh wilayah iko. Sabuah pilihan nan disukoi banyak urang Kashmir adolah kamerdekaan, namun baiak Pakistan jo India manantang hal iko.

Kashmir marupaoan salah satu wilayah rabuikan takenal di dunia, jo kabanyakan peta buatan Barat manggambaran wilayah iko jo garih batitiak untuak manandoi batasan nan indak pasti.

Caliak pulo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Bacaan labiah lanjuik[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • Drew, Federic. 1877. “The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations.” 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Neve, Arthur.(Date unknown). The Tourist's Guide to Kashmir, Ladakh, Skardo &c. 18th Edition. Civil and Military Gazette, Ltd., Lahore. (The date of this edition is unknown - but the 16th edition was published in 1938)
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1900. Kalhaṇa's Rājataraṅgiṇī – A Chronicle of the Kings of Kaśmīr, 2 vols. London, A. Constable & Co. Ltd. 1900. Reprint, Delhi, Motilal Banarsidass, 1979.
  • Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in the Crossfire (London: I B Tauris, 1996)
  • Kashmir Study Group, 1947-1997, the Kashmir dispute at fifty : charting paths to peace (New York, 1997)
  • Knight, E. F. 1893. Where Three Empires Meet: A Narrative of Recent Travel in: Kashmir, Western Tibet, Gilgit, and the adjoining countries. Longmans, Green, and Co., London. Reprint: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company, Taipei. 1971.
  • Navnita Behera, State, identity and violence : Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh (New Delhi: Manohar, 2000)
  • Sumit Ganguly, The Crisis in Kashmir (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press; Cambridge : Cambridge U.P., 1997)
  • Sumantra Bose, The challenge in Kashmir : democracy, self-determination and a just peace (New Delhi: Sage, 1997)
  • Alastair Lamb, Kashmir: A Disputed Legacy 1846-1990 (Hertingfordbury, Herts: Roxford Books, 1991)
  • Prem Shankar Jha, Kashmir, 1947: rival versions of history (New Delhi : Oxford University Press, 1996)
  • Manoj Joshi, The Lost Rebellion (New Delhi: Penguin India, 1999)
  • Alexander Evans, Why Peace Won't Come to Kashmir, Current History (Vol 100, No 645) April 2001 p170-175.
  • Younghusband, Francis and Molyneux, E. 1917. Kashmir. A. & C. Black, London.
  • Drew, Frederic. Date unknown. The Northern Barrier of India: a popular account of the Jammoo and Kashmir Territories with Illustrations. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu. 1971.
  • Moorcroft, William and Trebeck, George. 1841. Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindustan and the Panjab; in Ladakh and Kashmir, in Peshawar, Kabul, Kunduz, and Bokhara... from 1819 to 1825, Vol. II. Reprint: New Delhi, Sagar Publications, 1971.
  • Anonymous. 1614. Baharistan-i-Shahi: A Chronicle of Mediaeval Kashmir. Translated by K.N. Pandit. [1]

Pranala lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]