Primata

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Primata adolah sajinih mamalia nan tamasuak dalam ordo Primates (Latin: "prima, tingkek patamo").[1][2] Manuruik taksonomi, primata tabagi dalam duo subordo, yaitu , strepsirrhini jo haplorhini.[3] Primata baasa dari muyang nan iduik di batang-batang kayu rimbo tropis; banyak karakteristik primata manunjuakan babagai adaptasi iduik pado lingkuangan tigo dimensi ko. Sabagian gadang spesies primata sacaro panuah atau sabagian tatap basipaik arboreal (iduik di batang-batang kayu)

Salain jo manusia, nan mandiami satiok banua takacuali banua Antarktika,[4] sabagian gadang primata iduik di daerah tropis atau subtropis di Amerika, Afrika dan Asia.[5] Ukuaran tubuahnyo mulai nan taketek tikuih lemur Madame Berthe's, nan sabarek anyo Templat:Convert/g, inggo ka gorila timua, nan bareknyo mancapai Templat:Convert/kg labiah. Kok dicaliak dari bukti fosil, nan sabana primata paliang awa adolah genus Teilhardina, baasa dari maso 55,8 juta taun nan lalu.[6] Karabaik dakek taawa primata ditamuan banyak bakehnyo pado zaman Paleosen Akia adolah Plesiadapis, asa k. 55–58 juta taun nan lalu.[7] Panalitian jam molekuler mampakiroan cabang primata nan bahkan labiah tuo lai, baasa dari maso nan dakek jo bateh Cretaceous–Paleogene, yaitu sakita 63–74 juta taun nan lalu.[8][9][10][11]

Terminologi sijarah dan moderen[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Ubuangan antaro babagai kalompok primata nan babedo indak talalu jaleh inggo baru-baru ini sajo, mangkonyo panggunoan istilah-istilahnyo agak bingung saketek. Misanyo, kato "karo" dipakai sabagai namo lain untuak "cigak", atau untuak satiok jinih primata nan relatif mirip manusia dan indak babuntuik.[12]

Klasifikasi primata nan iduik[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

A 1927 gamba chimpanzee, gibbon (kanan ateh) jo duo orangutan (tangah jo bawah tangah): Chimpanzee di ateh kiri sadang bagayuik; orangutan di bawah tangah sadang bajalan jo buku jari.
  • Ordo Primata
    • Subordo Strepsirrhini: lemur, galago jo lorisid
      • Infraordo Lemuriformes[lower-alpha 1]
        • Superfamili Lemuroidea
          • Famili Cheirogaleidae: lemur katai jo lemur-tikuih (34 spesies)
          • Famili Daubentoniidae: aye-aye (ciek spesies)
          • Famili Lemuridae: ring-tailed lemur jo allies (21 spesies)
          • Famili Lepilemuridae: sportive lemur (26 spesies)
          • Famili Indriidae: lemur wo jo allies (19 spesies)
        • Superfamili Lorisoidea
          • Famili Lorisidae: lorisid (14 spesies)
          • Famili Galagidae: galagos (19 spesies)
    • Subordo Haplorhini: tarsier, cigak ,jo karo
      • Infraordo Tarsiiformes
        • Famili Tarsiidae: tarsier (11 spesies)
      • Infraordo Simiiformes (atau Anthropoidea)
        • Parvorder Platyrrhini: New World monkeys
          • Famili Callitrichidae: marmoset jo tamarin (42 spesies)
          • Famili Cebidae: capuchin jo cigak tupai (14 spesies)
          • Famili Aotidae: night or owl monkeys (douroucoulis) (11 spesies)
          • Famili Pitheciidae: titis, sakis and uakaris (43 spesies)
          • Famili Atelidae: howler, spider, woolly spider jo woolly monkeys (29 spesies)
        • Parvordo Catarrhini
          • Superfamili Cercopithecoidea
            • Famili Cercopithecidae: Cigak Dunia Lamo (138 spesies)
          • Superfamili Hominoidea
            • Famili Hylobatidae: gibbon atau "karo ketek" (17 spesies)
            • Famili Hominidae: karo gadang, tamasuak manusia (7 spesies)

Caliak pulo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Footnotes[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ Although the monophyletic relationship between lemurs and lorisoids is widely accepted, their clade name is not. The term "lemuriform" is used here because it derives from one popular taxonomy that clumps the clade of toothcombed primates into one infraorder and the extinct, non-toothcombed adapiforms into another, both within the suborder Strepsirrhini.[13][14] However, another popular alternative taxonomy places the lorisoids in their own infraorder, Lorisiformes.[15]

References[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ "Primate".
  2. ^ The English singular primate was derived via back-formation from the Latin inflected form which Carl Linnaeus introduced in his influential 1758 10th edition of Systema Naturae because he thought this the "highest" order of mammals.
  3. ^ Groves, C.P. (2005).
  4. ^ "Who Lives in Antarctica?
  5. ^ "Primate".
  6. ^ O'Leary, M. A.; et al. (8 February 2013).
  7. ^ Helen J Chatterjee, Simon Y.W. Ho, Ian Barnes & Colin Groves; Ho; Barnes; Groves (27 October 2009).
  8. ^ Stanyon, Roscoe; Springer, Mark S.; Meredith, Robert W.; Gatesy, John; Emerling, Christopher A.; Park, Jong; Rabosky, Daniel L.; Stadler, Tanja; Steiner, Cynthia; Ryder, Oliver A.; Janečka, Jan E.; Fisher, Colleen A.; Murphy, William J. (2012).
  9. ^ Jameson, Natalie M.; Hou, Zhuo-Cheng; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Weckle, Amy; Goodman, Morris; Steiper, Michael E.; Wildman, Derek E. (September 2011).
  10. ^ Pozzi, Luca; Hodgson, Jason A.; Burrell, Andrew S.; Sterner, Kirstin N.; Raaum, Ryan L.; Disotell, Todd R. (June 2014).
  11. ^ Stanyon, Roscoe; Finstermeier, Knut; Zinner, Dietmar; Brameier, Markus; Meyer, Matthias; Kreuz, Eva; Hofreiter, Michael; Roos, Christian (16 July 2013).
  12. ^ Anon. (1911), "Ape", Encyclopædia Britannica, XIX (11th ed.
  13. ^ Szalay & Delson 1980, hlm. 149.
  14. ^ Cartmill 2010, hlm. 15.
  15. ^ Hartwig 2011, hlm. 20–21.

Kutipan buku[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Bacoan lanjutan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • David J. Chivers; Bernard A. Wood; Alan Bilsborough, eds. (1984). Food Acquisition and Processing in Primates. New York & London: Plenum Press. ISBN 0-306-41701-4. 

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]