Muhammad Iqbal

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Allamah
Muhammad Iqbal
محمد اِقبال
Allama Iqbal.jpg
Iqbal taun 1938
Lahia Muhammad Iqbal
9 November 1877
Sialkot, Punjab, India Britania
Wafaik 21 April 1938 (umua 60)
Lahore, Punjab, India Britania
Kabangsaan India Britanian
Pandidikan Scotch Mission College (F.A.)
Government College (B.A., M.A.)
University of Cambridge (B.A.)
University of Munich (Ph.D.)
Karya takenal Bang-e-Dara, The Secrets of the Self, The Secrets of Selflessness, Message from the East, Persian Psalms, Javid Nama, "Sare Jahan se Accha".
Era Falsafah abaik 20
Region Falsafah Islam
School Hukum Islam
Main interests
Islam, Puisi Urdu, Puisi Persia, Hukum
Notable ideas
Allahabad Address

Muhammad Iqbal (/ ˈɪkbɑːl /; Urdu: محمد اِقبال; November 1877 - 21 April 1938), nan labiah tanamo sabagai Allama Iqbal, adolah surang panyaia, filsuf, politisi, akademisi, pangacara jo urang alim[1][2] di India maso panjajahan Inggrih nan dianggap mamicu Garakan Pakistan. Baliau disabuik sabagai "Bapak Spiritual Pakistan."[3] Inyo adolah urang pantiang dalam sastra Urdu, jo karya sastranyo dalam bahasa Urdu dan Persia.[4]

Sabagai panyaia tanamo Iqbal disagani dek urang India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iran, jo samo cendekiawan sastra internasional lainnyo.[5][6][7]Walau tanamo sabagai penyair, inyo pun surang "pamikia falsafah Muslim nan sangaik diakui di zaman moderen". Buku puisi partamonyo, The Secrets of the Self, babahaso Persia pado taun 1915, kamudian muncua buku-buku puisi lainnyo sarupo The Secrets of Selflessness, Message from the East, jo Persian Psalms. Di antaro karyanyo, karya-karya babahaso Urdu paliang tanamo adolah Call of the Marching Bell, Gabriel's Wing, The Rod of Moses jo bagian dari Gift from Hijaz.[8] Salain puisi babahaso Urdu jo Persia-nyo, karya babahso Inggrih sarato surek-sureknyo sangaik bapangaruah dalam wacana budayo, sosial, agamo dan politik.

Pado taun 1922, Tahun Baru Honours, inyo diangkek manjadi Knight Bachelor dek Rajo George V.[9][10]Wakatu baraja hukum jo filsafat di Inggrih, Iqbal manjadi anggota All-India Muslim League cabang London. Kamudian, salamo sesi Liga di Desember 1930, inyo manyampaian pidato kapresidenannyo nan paliang tanamo-Pidato Allahabad di mano inyo mandorong taciptanyo nagara Muslim di India barat lauik.

Di sabagian gadang Asia Salatan dan dunia babahaso Urdu, Iqbal dianggap sabagai Shair-e-Mashriq (Urdu: شاعر مشرق, "Panyair Timur").[11][12][13]Inyo pun juo disabuik Mufakkir-e-Pakistan (Urdu: مفکر پاکستان, "Pamikia Pakistan"), Musawwar-e-Pakistan (Urdu: مصور پاکستان, "Artis Pakistan") sarato Hakeem-ul-Ummat (Urdu) : حکیم الامت, "Urang bijakbagi ummat"). Pamarintah Pakistan sacaro rasmi menamoannyo "Panyair Nasional Pakistan". Ulang tahunnyo Yōm-e Welādat-e Muḥammad Iqbāl (Urdu: یوم ولادت محمد اقبال), atau Hari Iqbal, adolah hari libur umum di Pakistan.[14]

Rumah Iqbal masih talatak di Sialkot dan diakui sabagai Iqbal's Manzil dan tabukak untuak pangunjuang. Rumahnyo nan lain tampek inyo tingga sabagian gadang hiduiknyo jo maningga adolah di Lahore, dinamoi sabagai Javed Manzil. Museum iko talatak di Allama Iqbal Road dakek Stasiun Kareta Api Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.[15] Museum ko dilinduangi samo Undang-Undang Purbakala Punjab taun 1975, dan dinyoakan sabagai monumen nasional Pakistan pado taun 1977.

Karya[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Prosa babahaso Urdu

  • Ilm ul Iqtisad (1903)

Prosa babahaso Inggrih

  • The Development of Metaphysics in Persia (1908)
  • The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (1930)

Puisi babahaso Persia

  • Asrar-i-Khudi (1915)
  • Rumuz-i-Bekhudi (1917)
  • Payam-i-Mashriq (1923)
  • Zabur-i-Ajam (1927)
  • Javid Nama (1932)
  • Pas Cheh Bayed Kard ai Aqwam-e-Sharq (1936)
  • Armughan-e-Hijaz (1938) (in Persian and Urdu)

Puisi babahaso Urdu

  • Bang-i-Dara (1924)
  • Bal-i-Jibril (1935)
  • Zarb-i Kalim (1936)

Galeri[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Rehman, Javaid (2005). Islamic State Practices, International Law and the Threat from Terrorism: A Critique of the 'Clash of Civilizations' in the New World hgOrder. p. 15. ISBN 9781841135014. https://books.google.com/?id=es9Sunv_y2MC&pg=PA15&dq=Iqbal+a+muslim+scholar#v=onepage&q=Iqbal%20a%20muslim%20scholar&f=false. 
  2. "Allama Muhammad Iqbal Philosopher, poet, and Political leader". Aml.Org.pk. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 5 Maret 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120305000639/http://www.aml.org.pk/AllamaIqbal.html. Diakses pado 2 Maret 2012. 
  3. Craig, Albert M. (2011). The heritage of world civilizations. (edisi ke-9th). Harlow: Pearson Education. pp. 800. ISBN 978-0-205-80347-7. 
  4. Anil Bhatti. "Iqbal and Goethe" (PDF). Yearbook of the Goethe Society of India. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 30 Oktober 2008. https://web.archive.org/web/20081030083304/http://www.goethezeitportal.de/fileadmin/PDF/db/wiss/goethe/bhatti_iqbal.pdf. Diakses pado 7 Januari 2011. 
  5. "Love letter to Persia ", 25 April 2014. Diakses pado 13 September 2016.
  6. "Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. 28 Mai 2003. Diarsipan dari nan asli pada 6 Mai 2005. https://web.archive.org/web/20050506190825/http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_28-5-2003_pg3_6. Diakses pado 7 Januari 2011. 
  7. "Welcome to Allama Iqbal Site". http://www.allamaiqbal.com. 
  8. 1 in author list, Iqbal Academy (26 May 2006). "Allama Iqbal – Biography" (PHP). http://www.allamaiqbal.com/person/biography/biotxtread.html. Diakses pado 7 Januari 2011. 
  9. Templat:London Gazette
  10. "Iqbal's pro Kashmir approach". GroundReport.com. 19 Agustus 2009. http://www.groundreport.com/Media_and_Tech/Dr-Sir-Mohammad-Iqbal-s-pro-Kashmir-approach-highl_2/2906057. Diakses pado 24 Januari 2012. 
  11. Samiuddin, Abida (2007). Encyclopaedic dictionary of Urdu literature (2 Vols. Set). Global Vision Publishing House. p. 304. ISBN 81-8220-191-8. https://books.google.com/?id=-otQriwQ9z4C. 
  12. Sharif, Imran, "Allama Iqbal's 73rd death anniversary observed with reverence ", Pakistan Today, 21 April 2011. Diakses pado 6 Agustus 2012.
  13. "Cam Diary: Oxford remembers the Cam man ", Daily Times, 28 Mai 2003. Diarsipkan dari aslinya, tanggal 6 May 2005. Diakses pado 9 Nopember 2010.
  14. "National holiday November 9". Brecorder.com. 6 Nopember 2010. http://www.brecorder.com/top-stories/single/595/0/1121782/. Diakses pado 7 Agustus 2012. 
  15. Javed ManzilTemplat:Circular reference