Manara Eiffel

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Manara Eiffel, Paris

Manara Eiffel (Parancih: Tour Eiffel, /tuʀ ɛfɛl/) marupoan sabuah manara basi nan dibangun di Champ de Mars di tapi Sungai Seine, Paris. Manara ko lah manjadi ikon global Prancis jo marupoan salah satu manara nan takenal di dunia. Manara ko rasmi diparkenalkan di tingkek dunia dalam acara pameran dunia ato disabuik World Fair nan dijuluki Exposition Universelle.[1] Bangunan manara ko mamparingati hari jadinyo satiok tanggal pada 6 Mei, dan pado 6 Mei 2019 menara ko ala bausia 130 Tahun.[2] Adopun Insinyur jo arsitek dari manara Eifel ko adolah Gustave Eiffel.

Sijarah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Struktur bangunan ko dibangun antaro 1887 ka 1889 sabagai pintu masuak Exposition Universelle. Manara Eiffel ko sabalumnyo nio di bangun di Barcelona, untuak pameran Universal 1888, namun pihak nan batanggung jawaik di Balai Koto Barcelona manolak karano pambangunan nan maha jo ndak cocok dengan koto Barcelona. Satalah panolakan tu, Eiffel mangiriaman drafnyo kapado pihak nan batanggung jawaik tahadok pameran Universal di Paris.Akhirnyo manara ko di bangunan di Paris satahun kamudian, tapeknyo pado tahun 1889. Manara ko dirasmian pado tanggal 31 Maret 1889 jo di buka tanggal 6 Mei.[3]

Pambangunan Manara Eiffel pado tahun 1889.[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Manara ko mandapaik babagai kritik dari masyarakaik katiko maso pambangunan, banyak nan mangatoan Manara Eiffel ko maganggu pandangan. Surek kaba harian dipanuhi jo surek karitiak dari komunitas seni di Paris. Sajumlah saniman, kaum tapalajar, jo warga kabanyakan banci atas kahadiran gadung manara nan mencolok. Manuruik warga kabaradaan gadung ko marusak pamandangan jantung kota Paris nan babudaya. Para panantang pun membuek patisi, manuntuik supayo manara basi tu dibongkar sacapeknyo. Maski banyak patentangan, proyek nan dipimpin Gustave Eiffel tatok balanjuk. Manara raksaso ko disalaseian dalam duo tahun. [4]

Kajadian[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • Tahun 1902, manara ko tasambar patuih. Puncak satenggi 100 m (330 kaki) harus dibangun lai jo lampu nan manarangi manara nan harus diganti.[5]
  • Bapa Theodor Wulf tahun 1910 malakuan pangamatan anergi pancar nan dipancaran di ateh jo bawah manara, menemukan bagian atehnyo labih dari nan dipakiroan, jo mangawali apo nan disabuk sinar kosmik.[6]
  • Tanggal 31 Maret 1984, Robert Moriarty manabangkan sabuah Beechcraft Bonanza malalui langkungan bawah manara.[7]
  • Menara ko manarimo tamu ka 200.000.000 pado tahun 2002.[8][9]

72 Namo di Manara[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Gustave Eiffel mangabadian tujuah puluh duo namo ilmuwan, insinyur jo urang nan takenal Prancis lainnyo. Namo--namo tu dihapuih di awal abaik ka-20 tapi dikambalian samulo tahun 1986-1987 jo Société Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, sabuah parusahaan nan dikontrak untuak mangoperasian bisnis nan bahubungan jo Manara. Adopun urang nan bajaso tu adolah 1. Seguin/Marc Seguin (Mechanic) 2. Lalande (Astronomer) 3. Tresca/Henri Tresca (Engineer and Mechanic) 4. Poncele/Jean-Victor Poncelet Gernald (Geometrician) 5. Bresse/ Jacques Antoine Charles Bresse (Mathematician) 6. Lagrange/ Joseph Louis Lagrange (Geometrician) 7. Belanger/ Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger (Mathematician) 8. Cuvier/Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger (Naturalist) 9. Laplace/Jean-Baptiste-Charles-Joseph Bélanger (Astronomer) 10. Dulong/Pierre Louis Dulong (Physicist) 11. Chasles (Geometrician) 12. Lavoisier (Chemist) 13. Ampere (Mathematician and Physicist) 14. Chevreul (Chemist) 15. Flachat (Engineer) 16. Navier (Mathematician) 17. Legendre (Geometrician) 18. Chaptal (Agronomist and Chemist) 19. Jamin (Physicist) 20. Gay-Lussac (Chemist) 21. Fizeau (Physicist)22. Schneider (Industrialist) 23. Le Chatelier (Engineer) 24. Berthier (Mineralogist) 25. Barral (Agronomist, Chemist, Physicist) 26. De Dion (Engineer) 27. Goüin (Engineer and Industrialist)     28. Jousselin (Engineer) 29. Broca (Surgeon) 30. Becquerel (Physicist) 31. Coriolis(Mathematician) 32. Cail (Industrialist) 33. Triger (Engineer) 34. Giffard (Engineer) 35. Perrier (Géographe and Mathematician) 36. Sturm (Mathematician) 37. Cauchy (Mathematician)38. Belgrand (Engineer) 39. Regnault (Chemist and Physicist) 40. Fresnel (Physicist)41. De Prony(Engineer) 42. Vicat (Engineer)43. Ebelmen (Chemist) 44. Coulomb (Physicist)45. Poinsot (Mathematician)     46. Foucault (Physicist)47. Delaunay(Astronomer) 48. Morin (Mathematician and Physicist) 49. Haüy (Mineralogist) 50. Combes (Engineer and Metallurgist)51. Thénard (Chemist) 52. Arago (Astronomer and Physicist) 53. Poisson (Mathematician) 54. Monge (Geometrician) 55. Petiet (Engineer) 56. Daguerre (Painter and Physicist) 57. Wurtz (Chemist) 58. Le Verrier (Astronomer) 59. Perdonnet

(Engineer) 60. Delambre(Astronomer) 61. Malus (Physicist) 62. Breguet (Physicist and Constructor)63. Polonceau (Engineer)  64. Dumas (Chemist) 65. Clapeyron (Engineer) 66. Borda(Mathematician) 67. Fouriern (Mathematician) 68. Bichat (Anatomiste and Physiologist) 69. Sauvage (Mechanic) 70. Pelouze (Chemist) 71. Carnot (Mathematician) 72. Lamé

(Geometrician).[10]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. https://kumparan.com/lampu-edison/kisah-menara-eiffel-yang-tak-banyak-diketahui-1r6qgmHW5PL
  2. https://www.inews.id/news/internasional/ulang-tahun-ke-130-menara-eiffel-berselimut-cahaya
  3. https://kumparan.com/lampu-edison/kisah-menara-eiffel-yang-tak-banyak-diketahui-1r6qgmHW5PL
  4. https://www.history.com/topics/landmarks/eiffel-tower
  5. "Thunder and Lightning", Camille Flammarion, translated by Walter Mostyn, published in 1906.
  6. Wulf, Theodor. Physikalische Zeitschrift, contains results of the four-day long observation done by Theodor Wulf while at the top of the Eiffel Tower in 1910.
  7. "A Bonanza in Paris". Diakses tanggal 2008-04-04. 
  8. "The Eiffel Tower: Paris' Grande Dame". france.com. Diakses tanggal 2007-07-24. 
  9. "Soirée réussie le 28 novembre pour fêter l'année du 200 millionième visiteur". Official Site (dalam bahasa French). 2002. Diakses tanggal 2007-07-24. 
  10. https://web.archive.org/web/20080215224304/http://www.tour-eiffel.fr/teiffel/uk/documentation/dossiers/page/savants.html