Al Jazeera

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Gaduang Al Jazeera Arab di Doha, Qatar

Al Jazeera (Arab: الجزيرة‎, IPA: [æl (d)ʒæˈziːrɐ], arati harfiah "pulau", namun mukasuiknyo Jazirah Arab dalam konteks iko)[1] adolah saluran barito internasional babahaso Arab nan bapusek di Doha, Qatar, nan dioperasian dek konglomerat media Al Jazeera Media Network. Saluran tasabuik marupoan saluran unggulan dari konglomerat media iko, dek karanonyo saluran babahaso Arab iko mamakai anyo namo "Al Jazeera" sajo untuak mereknyo.

Kasadioan saluran iko untuak manayangan barito sacaro indak babateh, misalnyo pado acaro siaran dari lapangan, acok mamicu kontroversi di nagara-nagara Arab di Taluak Persia. Salah satu kantua pawakilannyo panah manjadi satu-satunyo saluran nan malipuik Parang di Afghanistan sacaro lansuang.[2]

Bantuak parusaoan induaknyo barupo "yayasan paribadi untuak kapantiangan umum" di bawah ukum Qatar.[3] Di bawah struktur organisasi iko, induak parusaoan manarimo dana dari pamarentah Qatar tatapi tatap mampartahankan independensi redaksinyo.[4][5] Jaringan Al Jazeera iko kadang-kadang dipandang punyo suduik pandang nan Islamis, mampromosian Ikhwanul Muslimin, sarato bias ka pro-Sunni jo anti-Syiah dalam malaporan masalah-masalah regional.[6][7][8] Al Jazeera surang manyatoan baso pambaritoannya maliputi kasado sisi padebatan, sarato tatap manyajian suduik pandangan Israel atau Iran jo objektivitas nan samo. Al Jazeera panah manayangan video nan dikaluaan dek Usamah bin Ladin.[9]

Siaran perdana[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Saluran Satelit Al Jazeera, acok disingkek AJA, diluncuaan pado 1 Nopember 1996 satalah panutuikan stasiun televisi BBC babahasa Arab, nan marupoan usao patungan jo Orbit Communications Company. Saluran BBC itu tutuik satelah maudaro satu satengah taun katiko pamarentah Saudi barusao untuak manyensor informasi, sarupo laporan grafis tantang ukuman mati jo pandapek dari para pambangkang tanamo.[10]

Ari partamo Al Jazeera maudaro adolah 1 Nopember 1996. Awanyo program balansuang salamo 6 jam per ari; kudian lamo program maningkek jadi 12 jam pado akia taun 1997. Acaro disiakan ka lingkuangan tadakek sabagai sinyal terestrial, sarato malalui kabel. Al Jazeera tasedio juo malalui satelit (nan gratis bagi pangguno di dunia Arab), walaupun Qatar jo banyak nagara Arab lainnyo malarang parorangan swasta punyo antena parabola inggo taun 2001.[11]

Organisasi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Saluran asali Al Jazeera diluncuaan 1 Nopember 1996 badasa dekrit emirat, sarato mandapek pinjaman 500 juta riyal Qatar (US $ 137 juta) dari Emir Qatar, Syaikh Hamad bin Khalifa.[12][13] Malalui pandanaan nan barasa dari pinjaman atau hibah jo bukannyo subsidi lansuang pamarentah, saluran tasabuik barusao untuak mampatahanan kabijakan editorial nan mandiri.[14][15] Saluran tasabuik mulai mangudaro pado akia 1996, jo banyak staf bagabuang dari stasiun TV babahaso Arab miliak basamo BBC World Service jo Saudi, nan alah ditutuik pado 1 April 1996 satalah duo taun baoperasi karana tuntutan sensor dek pamarentah Arab Saudi.[16] Logo Al Jazeera marupoan representasi dekoratif dari namo jaringan nan ditulih manggunoan kaligrafi Arab. Desain itu dipiliah dek pandiri stasiun, Emir Qatar Syeikh Hamad bin Khalifa, sabagai entri pamanang dalam kompetisi desain.[17]

Jangkauan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Banyak nagara di Timur Tangah mangunoan media nan dikalola nagara atau sensor pamarentah untuak mampangaruahi liputan media lokal jo opini publik, nan manyabaukan kabaratan internasional taradok kabebasan pers jo liputan media nan bias.[18] Babarapo panaliti jo komentator mamakai istilah objektivitas kontekstual,[19] nan manakankan takanan antaro objektivitas jo katartarikan panonton, untuak manggambakan pandakatan barito stasiun iko nan kontroversial namun populer.[20]

Wawancara eksklusif Al Jazeera Media Network jo rakaman lainnyo disiakan ulang di Amerika, Inggrih, jo media barat lainnyo sarupo CNN jo BBC. Pado Januari 2003, BBC mangumuman baso mareka alah manandotangani pajanjian jo Al Jazeera untuak babagi fasilitas jo informasi, tamasuak cuplikan barito.[21]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. "FAQ Al Jazeera America". Diakses tanggal 10 October 2015. The name "Al Jazeera" means "peninsula." 
  2. Whitaker, Brian (7 February 2003). "Battle station". The Guardian. London. Diakses tanggal 26 August 2011. 
  3. Dunleavy, Jerry (19 June 2019). "Al Jazeera pushes back on GOP effort to force it to register as a foreign agent". Washington Examiner. 
  4. Souag, Mostefa (5 October 2018). "National Press Club Declares Support For Al Jazeera". National Press Club Press Release. 
  5. See Law No 10 of 2011 on the Conversion of Al Jazeera Satellite Network to a Private Corporation for the Public Benefit promulgated in accordance with provisions of Decree-Law No. 21 of 2006 Regarding Private Foundations for the Public Benefit (amended 2007) issued under the constitution-amendment statute Law no (22) of 2004 Regarding Promulgating the Civil Code (ibid. Articles 53–54). Parent holding Al Jazeera Media Network has its world headquarters registered under the same proviso (cf. Australia's Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act (amended 2019) and Broadcasting Services Act (amended 2020), France's Signature of first contract of objectives and means between the State and France Médias Monde, Germany's Deutsche Welle Act (amended 2004), Japan's The Broadcast Act (amended 2010), United Kingdom's BBC Royal Charter (amended 2017) & Broadcasting Act (amended 1996), United States' International Broadcasting Act (amended 2016) & Public Broadcasting Act).
  6. Goldberg, Jeffrey (10 July 2013). "Why Does Al Jazeera Love a Hateful Islamic Extremist?". bloombergview.com. Bloomberg L.P. 
  7. "AL JAZEERA: US Government Funded Anti-Muslim Brotherhood Activists". Business Insider. 10 July 2013. Diakses tanggal 16 June 2015. 
  8. "Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington - Why America Turned Off Al Jazeera - Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington". Arab Gulf States Institute in Washington. 19 February 2016. 
  9. Telhami, Shibley (2013-06-15). "Al Jazeera: The Most-Feared News Network". Salon. Diakses tanggal 2021-01-12. 
  10. "AL JAZEERA TV: The History of the Controversial Middle East News Station Arabic News Satellite Channel History of the Controversial Station". Allied-media. Diakses tanggal 12 April 2012. 
  11. Powers, Shawn (December 2009). "The Geopolitics of the News: The Case of the Al Jazeera Network". University of Southern California. Diakses tanggal 2021-01-13. 
  12. Hugh Miles, 2005. Al-Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West. New York: Grove Press, p.346, Books.Google.com
  13. Naomi Sakr, 2001. Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization & the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, p. 57, Books.google.com
  14. Naomi Sakr, 2001. Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization & the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris, pp. 58, Books.Google.com
  15. Hugh Miles, 2005. Al-Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the West. New York: Grove Press, p. 347, Books.Google.com
  16. "Qatar's Al-Jazeera livens up Arab TV scene". BBC. 7 January 1999. Diakses tanggal 12 August 2014. 
  17. "Arabic in Graphic Design: Al Jazeera's Cartouche". Fight.Boredom. Cloudjammer Creative Network. 18 February 2008. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 20 December 2008. Diakses tanggal 5 November 2008. 
  18. "Al Jazeera: The Inside Story of the Arab News Channel that is Challenging the We". Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 15 January 2008. Diakses tanggal 25 November 2006.  TV programme feat. Lawrence Velvel, Dean of the Mass. School of Law, interviewing author Hugh Miles who reveals a lot about the channel (a, c: 48:30, b: 55:00)
  19. El-Nawawy and Iskandar. Al-Jazeera: How the free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East. Westview.  cf.Further reading
  20. "The Minotaur of 'Contextual Objectivity': War coverage and the pursuit of accuracy with appeal". TBS Journal.com. Diarsipkan dari versi asli tanggal 11 February 2012. Diakses tanggal 12 April 2012. 
  21. BBC in news deal with Arabic TV BBC News, published 17 January 2003

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]