A Vindication of the Rights of Men

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Sampul edisi kaduo nan mamuek namo Mary Wollstonecraft.

A Vindication of the Rights of Men, in a Letter to the Right Honourable Edmund Burke; Occasioned by His Reflections on the Revolution in France adolah sabuah pamflet politik nan ditulih dek aktivis jo panulih Inggirih Mary Wollstonecraft. Pamflet iko marupoan balasan dari buku Reflections on the Revolution in France' karya Edmund Burke, dan tabik untuak kali partamo pado tahun 1790.

Latar sajarah[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Dari taun 1789 inggo 1795, masyarakat intelektual di Inggirih terlibat dalam Kontroversi Revolusi takaik Revolusi Parancih. Banyak urang nan dikajuikkan dek tabiknyo pamflet karya Edmund Burke nan bajudul Reflections on the Revolution on France pado bulan November 1790.[1] Burke, surang tokoh nan acok mangkritik kuaso rajo dan pandukuang Revolusi Amerika, dipakiroan akan turuik sato mandukuang revolusi di Parancih, justru manulak revolusi tasabuik.[2]

Karya Burke sabagian gadang marespon isi khutbah tokoh agamo Richard Price A Discourse on the Love of Our Country.[2] Dalam Reflections, Burke bapandangan baso Revolusi Parancih adolah sabuah tindakan kudeta nan indak sah taadok pamarintahan nan sah. Manuruik Burke, warga nagara indak punyo hak untuak barevolusi taadok pamarintahannyo surang, dek sabab paradaban adolah hasil dari konsensus sosial jo politik, sainggo jikok tradisi taruih-manaruih ditantang, sabuah nagara akan jatuah ka dalam kondisi anarki. Suaro Burke dalam pamflet ko diwakili surang mudo Parancih nan mamintak tolong untuak mampatahanan pamarintahan aristokratik, paternalistik, jo bakaturunan diparintah rajo-rajo.[3][2]

Reflections karya Burke tajua labiah dari 30,000 eksemplar walaupun diaaragoi tigo shilling nan maha pado maso tu.[2] Karya partamo nan mambalehnyo, The Rights of Man karya Thomas Paine nan tabik pado 1792, malampaui rekor Reflections dan tajua labiah dari 200,000 eksemplar.[4] Jikok Burke mandukuang aristokrasi, monarki, jo agamo nagara, kaum liberal cando Paine, Wollstonecraft, jo William Godwin mandukuang republikanisme, sosialisme agraris, anarki, jo tolerasi baagamo. Dalam iklan nan nyo tulih pado bagian awal Rights of Men, Wollstonecraft manjalehan alasan baa kok inyo manulih pamflet ko:

Reflections of the French Revolution karya Tuan Burke mulai ambo paratian dek hal-hal nan tajadi pado akhia-akhia ko. Ambo mambaconyo labiah untuak hiburan daripado informasi. Kamarahan ambo tabik dek argumen-argumennyo nan canggih dalam bantuak nan mambangkikkan parasoan jo mampatanyoan akal sehat.

Halaman [dari buku ko] adolah tanggapan capek dari momen-momen mambaco buku tu [Reflections], namun bakambang manjadi sabuah gagasan gadang nan mambela dan manjadi pambanaran singkek ateh hak-hak umat manusia.

Dek karano ambo indak punyo kasabaran atau wakatu lapang untuak mangikuti a nan nio dibuek dek panulih ko [Burke], ambo lah mambatasi [buku ko] ka dalam struktur-struktur nan jaleh tantang prinsip-prinsip nan utamo untuak mambaleh argumen-argumen cadiak nan dibungkuih jo aka buluih pado bukunyo [Burke].[5]

Panulisan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Wollstonecraft mamintak panabiknyo, Joseph Jonson, untuak dapek capek manabikkan pamflet ko.[6] Dalam memoirnyo tantang Wollstonecraft, Godwin mancataik baso naskah-naskah pamflet ko masih sadang ditulih katiko lansuang dikirim ka pacetakan. Rights of Men ditabikkan sacaro anonim pado 20 November 1790.[7] Tigo minggu kamudian, pado 18 Desember, cetakan kaduo nan mamuek namo Wollstonecraft.[8] Suntiangannyo pado edisi kaduo mampatajam sarangan pribadi pado Burke dan mangganti banyak bagian dari naskah asli dari suduik pandang urang patamo manjadi urang katigo.[9]

Struktur jo isi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Gayo panulisan Rights of Men maniru banyak gayo panulisan Burke di Reflections, yaitu dalam bantuak surek: Burke manulih pado surang mudo Parancih, dan Wollstonecraft manulih ka Burke.[10] Dek sabab modenyo sabagai sabuah pamflet politik, Rights of Men indak punyo struktur nan jaleh, sainggo acok dianggap indak beres, indak jaleh, indak logis, dan panuah jo sarangan ad hominem.[11][12]

Wollstonecraft mangacam gagasan tantang pangkek jo hierarki manusia nan diajuan Burke.[13] Inyo mangkritik kareh sikap Burke nan maremehan rakyat banyak dan mandukuang kaum elit cando Marie Antoinette. Wollstonecraft bapandangan baso surang manusia harus dinilai malalui kamampuannyo, bukan malalui katurunan.[14] Inyo mandukuang gagasan sabuah masyarakat dagang nan dapek mambantu surang manusia mamanuahan potensi dirinyo masiang-masiang dan manyalasaian tangguangjawabnyo sabagai surang warga nagara.[15]

Wollstonecraft bapandangan baso ideologi republikanisme labiah rancak dibandiangan monarki, dek sabab republikanisme dapek manjamin kamakmuran jo kabahagiaan urang banyak, bukan anyo pado urang-urang nan punyo tanah atau harato.[16] Nan mambedan Wollstonecraft adolah gagasannyo tantang paran kaluarga sabagai tampek mananaman nilai-nilai republikan paliang awal, dan nilai-nilai kaluarga sabagai dasar dari nilai-nilai publik.[17] Iko beda jo ide tokoh republikan nan lain cando Godwin atau Francis Hutcheson.[18]

Jikok Burke bapandangan baso masyarakat dan pamarintah harus baaka pado tradisi nan alah ado sajak zaman daulu, Wollstonecraft bapandapek baso sadoalah konsensus dalam bamasyarakat dapek dipareso ulang sacaro logis. Inyo bapandangan baso tradisi indak harus dianggap dalam hukum atau dalam undang-undang dasar, sainggo hak-hak manusia harus diagiahan dek karano inyo masuak aka, bukannyo dek karano alah manjadi tradisi dalam masyarakat sajak lamo.[19][11]

Tanggapan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Rights of Men dijua satangah harago (satu shilling anam pence) dari Reflections karya Burke, sainggo labiah banyak laku di masyarakat.[20]

Surek kaba pado maso tu maninjau Rights of Men dengan kritis. Analytical Review sapakek jo gagasan Wollstonecraft dan mamuji tulisannyo nan bernas.[21] Critical Review, nan acok basubarangan pandang jo Analytical, mangkritik kareh salapeh dapek tahu baso nan manulihnyo adolah surang wanita.[21][22] Gentleman's Magazine bapandapek baso tulisan Wollstonecraft indak masuak di aka.[23]

William Godwin, nan salapeh panabikkan buku ko manjadi suamo Wollstonecraft, manggambaran buku ko "indak masuak di aka" dan indak manuruik aturan tata bahasa. Memoir nan inyo tulih tantang istrinyo hanyo mambahas pamflet ko dalam satu bab.[24] Namun, urang lain cando sajarawan Catherine Macaulay jo pangacara dan paminat seni William Roscoe manyukoi karya ko.[25][26]

Sajarawan modern bapandapek baso 'Rights of Men adolah karya nan mambuek Wollstonecraft radikal dan manginspirasi tulisan-tulisannyo sasudah tu, sarupo A Vindication of the Rights of Woman nan tabik pado tahun 1792.[27] Wollstonecraft surang salapeh manabikkan Rights of Woman manjalehan labiah banyak argumen nan inyo kamukoan di Rights of Men.[28]

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. Butler, 33; Kelly, 85.
  2. a b c d Butler, 34–35.
  3. Butler, 1–2; 33–34.
  4. Butler, 108.
  5. Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 33.
  6. Godwin, ch. 6
  7. Furniss, 60; Taylor, 7; Sapiro, 23; Myers, 113.
  8. Furniss, 60.
  9. Sunstein, 198.
  10. Sapiro, 197.
  11. a b Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 43–44.
  12. Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 37.
  13. Sapiro, 199; Jones, 49; Johnson, 28; Myers, 123–24.
  14. Sapiro, 83; Kelly, 94–95.
  15. Jones, 51.
  16. Jones, 43; Sapiro, xx; Johnson, 25; Kelly, 90–91.
  17. Sapiro, 216.
  18. Jones, 44–46.
  19. Wollstonecraft, Vindications, 75.
  20. Todd, 166.
  21. a b Wardle, 120–21.
  22. Qtd. in Kelly, 101–102.
  23. Qtd. in Todd, 472, n.34; see also Wardle, 121.
  24. Godwin, 73; see also Todd, 168; Sapiro, 25.
  25. Qtd. in Todd, 167.
  26. Qtd. in Sapiro, 2.
  27. Johnson, 26.
  28. Sapiro, 83.

Sumber[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Ed. Conor Cruise O'Brien. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. ISBN 0-14-043204-3.
  • Butler, Marilyn, ed. Burke, Paine, Godwin, and the Revolution Controversy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-28656-5.
  • Godwin, William. Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Eds. Pamela Clemit and Gina Luria Walker. Peterborough: Broadview Press, 2001. ISBN 1-55111-259-0.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. The Complete Works of Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Janet Todd and Marilyn Butler. 7 vols. London: William Pickering, 1989. ISBN 0-8147-9225-1.
  • Wollstonecraft, Mary. The Vindications: The Rights of Men and The Rights of Woman. Eds. D.L. Macdonald and Kathleen Scherf. Toronto: Broadview Literary Texts, 1997. ISBN 1-55111-088-1.
  • Barrell, John and Jon Mee, eds. "Introduction". Trials for Treason and Sedition, 1792–1794. 8 vols. London: Pickering and Chatto, 2006–7. ISBN 978-1-85196-732-2.
  • Furniss, Tom. "Mary Wollstonecraft's French Revolution". The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Claudia L. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-78952-4.
  • Johnson, Claudia L. Equivocal Beings: Politics, Gender, and Sentimentality in the 1790s. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. ISBN 0-226-40184-7.
  • Jones, Chris. "Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindications and their political tradition". The Cambridge Companion to Mary Wollstonecraft. Ed. Claudia L. Johnson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-78952-4.
  • Keen, Paul. The Crisis of Literature in the 1790s: Print Culture and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-65325-8.
  • Kelly, Gary. Revolutionary Feminism: The Mind and Career of Mary Wollstonecraft. New York: St. Martin's, 1992. ISBN 0-312-12904-1.
  • Myers, Mitzi. "Politics from the Outside: Mary Wollstonecraft's First Vindication". Studies in Eighteenth-Century Culture 6 (1977): 113–32.
  • Paulson, Ronald. Representations of Revolution, 1789–1820. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-300-02864-4.
  • Poovey, Mary. The Proper Lady and the Woman Writer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984. ISBN 0-226-67528-9.
  • Sapiro, Virginia. A Vindication of Political Virtue: The Political Theory of Mary Wollstonecraft. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. ISBN 0-226-73491-9.
  • Sunstein, Emily. A Different Face: the Life of Mary Wollstonecraft. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1975. ISBN 0-06-014201-4.
  • Taylor, Barbara. Mary Wollstonecraft and the Feminist Imagination. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-521-66144-7.
  • Todd, Janet. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Revolutionary Life. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2000. ISBN 0-231-12184-9.
  • Wardle, Ralph M. Mary Wollstonecraft: A Critical Biography. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1951.

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]