Agamo

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Agamo adolah suatu sistem nan mangatur tata kaimanan (kapicayoan) dan paribadatan kapado Tuhan Nan Mahakuaso sarato tata kaidah nan bahubuangan jo pagaulan manusia dan manusia sarato lingkuangannyo.

Kato "agamo" baasa dari bahaso Sanskerta, āgama nan baarati "tradisi".[1]. Sadangkan kato lain untuak manyatokan konsep iko adolah religi nan baasa dari bahaso Latin religio dan baaka pado kato karajo re-ligare nan baarati "mangikek baliak". Makasuiknyo jo bareligi, sasaurang mangikek dirinyo kapado Tuhan.

Émile Durkheim mangatokan baso agamo adolah suatu sistem nan tapadu nan tadiri ateh kapicayoan dan praktik nan bahubuangan jo hal nan suci. Kito sabagai umaik baagamo samaksimal mungkin bausaho untuak taruih maningkekan kaimanan kito malalui rutinitas baibadah, mancapai rohani nan sampurano kasuciannyo

Definisi[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Definisi tantang agamo dipiliah nan sadarano tapi manyaluruah. Aratinyo definisi iko diharokan indak talalu sampik atau talalu lungga tatapi dapek dipakai kapado agamo-agamo nan salamo ko dikana malalui panyabuikan namo-namo agamo itu. Agamo marupoan suatu limbago atau institusi pantiang nan maatua iduik rohani manusia. Untuak itu tahadok apo nan dikana sabagai agamo-agamo itu paralu dicari titiak pasamoannyo dan titiak pabedoannyo.

Manusia punyo kamampuan tabateh, kasadaran dan pangakuan akan katabatehannyo manjadikan kayakinan baso ado sasuatu nan lua biaso di lua dirinyo. Sasuatu nan lua biaso itu tantu baasa dari sumber nan lua biaso juo. Dan sumber nan lua biaso itu ado bamacam-macam sasuai jo bahaso manusianyo surang . Misal Tuhan, Dewa, God, Syang-ti, Kami-Sama dan lain-lain atau hanyo manyabuik sipaik-Nyo sajo sarupo Nan Maha Kuaso, Ingkang Murbeng Dumadi, De Weldadige, jo lain-lain.

Kayakinan iko mambaok manusia untuak mancari kadakekan diri kapado Tuhan jo caro mangambokan diri, yaitu:

  • manarimo sagalo kapastian nan manimpo diri dan sakaliliagnyo sarato yakin baasa dari Tuhan
  • manaati saganok katatapan, aturan, hukum dll nan diyakini baasa dari Tuhan

Jo damikian didapek katarangan nan jaleh, baso agamo itu pangamboan manusia kapado Tuhannyo. Dalam arati agamo ado 3 unsua, iolah manusia, pangamboan, jo Tuhan. Mako suatu paham atau ajaran nan manganduang katigo unsua pokok arati tasabuik dapek disabuik agamo.

Labiah lawehnyo lai, Agamo juo bisa diaratikan sabagai jalan iduik. Yakni baso saluruah aktivitas lahia jo batin pamaluaknyo itu diatua dek agamo nan dianuiknyo. Bagaimano awak makan, bagaimano awak bagaul, bagaimano awak baibadah, dan sabagainyo ditantukan jo aturan/tata caro agamo.

Agamo di Indonesia[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Anam agamo nan paliang banyak dianuik di Indonesia marupoan agamo Islam, Kristen Protestan, Katolik, Hindu, Buddha, jo Konghucu. Sabalunnya, pamarentah Indonesia pernah malarang panganuik Konghucu malaksanoan agamanyo sacaro umum. Namun, malalui Keppress No. 6/2000, Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid mancabuik larangan tu.

Daftar agamo-agamo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Panyebaran agamo di dunia

Jumlah pamaluak agamo jo kapacayoan di dunia[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Agamo jo kapacayoan nan bacantuman di bawah iko marupoan agamo jo kapacayoan jo jumlah pamaluk nan signifikan di saluruah dunia. Babarapo komunitas di babagai balahan dunia juo mamaluak babagai aliran kapacayoan nan dianggap sabagai golongan minoritas dan alun dikamukokan. Babarapo agamo jo kapacayoan jo jumlah pamaluak nan gadang antaro lain:

Agamo/kapacayoan Jumlah pamaluak Katarangan
Kristen 2,000 - 2,200 miliar[2]
Islam 1,570 - 1,650 miliar[3][4][5]
Non-Adherent (Sekular/Ateis/Indak Baragamo/Agnostik) 1,1 miliar[6]
Hinduisme 828 juta - 1 miliar[7] beberapa aliran kepercayaan seperti Ayyavazhi dan Kaharingan diakui sebagai bagian dari Hinduisme[7]
Buddhisme 450 juta - 1 miliar[8][9][10]
Kapacayoan tradisional (di Afrika, Amerika, Asia) 400 - 500 juta[nb 1]
Kapacayoan tradisional Tionghoa 400 - 500 juta[11][nb 1] tamasuak Taoisme jo Khonghucu
Sikhisme 23 juta[12]
Yudaisme (agamo Yahudi) 14 juta[8]
Jainisme 8 - 12 juta beberapa komunitas Jaina dianggap suatu sekte Hinduisme[nb 2]
Baha'i 7,6 - 7,9 juta[13][14]
Shinto 27 - 65 juta banyak orang Jepang yang memeluk agama Shinto dan Buddha sekaligus[15]
Cao Dai 1 - 3 juta[16]
Spiritisme 2,5 juta[17]
Tenrikyo 2 juta[18]
Neo-Paganisme 1 juta[19] tamasuak Druid, Wicca, Magick, Asatru, Agamo Asli Suku Indian, dll.
Gerakan Rastafari 700 ribu[20]
Unitarian Universalisme 630 ribu[21]
Zoroastrianisme (Majusi) 145 - 210 ribu[22]

Catatan kaki[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ a b The number of people who consider themselves party to a "folk tradition" is impossible to determine.
  2. ^ Figures for the population of Jains differ from just over six million to twelve million due to difficulties of Jain identity, with Jains in some areas counted as a Hindu sect. Many Jains do not return Jainism as their religion on census forms for various reasons such as certain Jain castes considering themselves both Hindu and Jain. Following a major advertising campaign urging Jains to register as such, the 1981 Census of India returned 3.19 million Jains. This was estimated at the time to still be half the true number. The 2001 Census of India had 8.4 million Jains.

Rujuakan[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  1. ^ Menurut kamus Sanskerta-Inggirih Monier-Williams (cetakan pertama tahun 1899) pada entri āgama: ...a traditional doctrine or precept, collection of such doctrines, sacred work [...]; anything handed down and fixed by tradition (as the reading of a text or a record, title deed, &c.)
  2. ^ World Christian Database Gordon–Conwell Theological Seminary Centre for the Study of Global Christianity
  3. ^ http://www.religionfacts.com/big_religion_chart.htm
  4. ^ 2010 World Muslim Population pdf Dr. Houssain Kettani January 2010
  5. ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim Population". http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=450. Diakses pado 8 Oktober 2009. 
  6. ^ Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents adherents.com
  7. ^ a b Clarke, Peter B. (editor), The Religions of the World: Understanding the Living Faiths, Marshall Editions Limited: USA (1993); pg. 125
  8. ^ a b "World". CIA World Factbook, 2010
  9. ^ Fischer-Schreiber, Ingrid, et al. The Encyclopedia of Eastern Philosophy & Religion: Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Zen. Shambhala: Boston (English: pub. 1994; orig. German: 1986); pg. 50.
  10. ^ a BBC News article
  11. ^ http://www.asiasentinel.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=468&Itemid=206
  12. ^ Indian Registrar General & Census Commissioner. "Religious Composition". Census of India, 2001
  13. ^ "World Religions (2005)". QuickLists > The World > Religions. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 26 Juli 2005. http://www.thearda.com/QuickLists/QuickList_125.asp. Diakses pado 4 Juli 2009. 
  14. ^ "World: People: Religions". CIA World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 26 Juli 2007. ISSN 1553-8133. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html#people. Diakses pado 6 September 2009. 
  15. ^ Japanese government
  16. ^ Sergei Blagov. "Caodaism in Vietnam : Religion vs Restrictions and Persecution". IARF World Congress, Vancouver, Canada, July 31st, 1999.
  17. ^ "Brazil". CIA World Factbook, 2011, based on the 2000 Brazilian Census
  18. ^ Self-reported figures printed in Japanese Ministry of Education's 宗教年間 Shuukyou Nenkan, 2003
  19. ^ Adherents.com
  20. ^ Leonard E. Barrett. The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance. Beacon Press, 1988. p. viii.
  21. ^ American Religious Identification Survey
  22. ^ Goodstein, Laurie, "Zoroastrians Keep the Faith, and Keep Dwindling ", (The New York Times), 6 September 2008. Diakses pado 3 Oktober 2009.

Literatur[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

  • MH, Amin Jaiz, Pokok-pokok Ajaran Islam, Korpri Unit PT. Asuransi Jasa Indonesia Jakarta, 1980
  • Monier Williams, 1899, A Sanskrit English Dictionary. Oxford University Pressa

Caliak pulo[suntiang | suntiang sumber]

Pautan lua[suntiang | suntiang sumber]