Abaik Patangahan

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Abaik Patangahan dalam sijarah Eropa tajadi sangkek abaik ke-5 sampai abaik ka-15 Masehi. Abaik Patangahan bamulo sajak runtuahnya Kakaisaran Romawi Barat inggo balanjuik sampai Eropa mulai memasuki Abaik Pembaharuan jo Abad Penjelajahan. Sijarah Dunia Barat sacaro tradisional dibagi ka dalam tigo kurun ukatu, yakni Abaik Kuno, Abaik Patangahan, jo Zaman Modern. Jo kato lain, Abaik Patangahan adolah kurun ukatu paraliahan dari Abaik Kuno ka Zaman Modern. Abaik Patangahan masih dibagi lai manjadi tigo kurun ukatu, yakni Awal Abaik Patangahan, Puncak Abaik Patangahan, jo Akhia Abaik Patangahan.

Penurunan jumlah panduduak, kontraurbanisasi, invasi, jo perpindahan suku-suku bangso, nan tajadi sajak Akhia Abaik Kuno, masih balanjuik pado Awal Abaik Patangahan. Perpindahan-perpindahan panduduak berskala gadang pado Zaman Migrasi mancakuik pulo perpindahan suku-suku bangso Jermanik nan managakkan karajaan-karajaan baru di bakeh wilayah Kekaisaran Romawi Barat. Pado abaik ka-7, Afrika Utara jo Timur Tengah—bakeh wilayah Kekaisaran Bizantin—dikuasai dek Khilafah Bani Umayyah, sabuah kekaisaran Islam, sasudah ditaklukkan dek paro pangganti Muhammad. Walaupun pado Awal Abaik Patengahan alah tajadi parubahan-parubahan mendasar pado tatanan kemasyarakatan jo politik, pangaruah Abad Kuno alun hilang bana lai do. Kekaisaran Bizantin nan masih cukuik gadang tatok ado di kawasan timur Eropa. Kitab undang-undang Kekaisaran Bizantin, Corpus Iuris Civilis atau "Kitab Undang-Undang Yustinianus", ado basuo di Italia Utara pado 1070, nan isuaknyo maundang decak kagum dari babagai kalangan sapanjang Abaik Patengahan. Sabagian gadang dari kerajaan-kerajaan nan tagak di kawasan barat Eropa malimbagoan segelintir pranata Romawi nan tatingga. Biaro-biaro ditagakan sairiang gencarnya usaho mengkristenkan kaum penganut kaparcayoan niniak muyang di Eropa. Urang Franka di bawah pimpinan rajo-rajo wangsa Karoling, managakkan Kekaisaran Karoling pado pangujuang abaik ke-8 jo permulaan abaik ke-9. Walaupun berjaya manguasai sabagian gadang tanah Eropa Barat, Kekaisaran Karoling pado akhianya tapuruak dek parang-parang saudaro di dalam nagari jo invasi-invasi dari lua nagari, yakni sarangan urang Viking dari arah utara, sarangan urang Magyar dari arah timur, jo sarangan urang Sarasen dari arah selatan.

Pado Puncak Abaik Patangahan, nan bamulo sasudah taun 1000 Masehi, populasi Eropa maningkek pesat dek munculnyo inovasi-inovasi di bidang teknologi jo pertanian nan mamungkinkan bakembangnyo paniagaan. Lonjakan populasi Eropa disebabkan pulo dek parubahan iklim salamo periode Suhu Hangat Abaik Patangahan nan mamungkinkan paningkatan hasil panen. Ado duo tatanan kemasyarakatan nan diterapkan pado Puncak Abaik Patangahan, yakni Manorialisme jo Feodalisme. Manorialisme adaloh panertiban rakyaik jelata manjadi pamukim di desa-desa, jo kewajiban mambayia sewa lahan jo bakarajo bakti bagi kaum ningrat; samantaro feodalisme adolah struktur politik nan mawajibkan paro kesatria jo kaum ningrat kelas bawah untuak maju baparang mambela junjuangan mereka sabagai ganti anugerah hak sewa kabakeh lahan jo tanah pertuanan (bahasa Inggirih: manor). Parang Salib, nan mulo-mulo diseruan pado 1095, adolah upaya militer umaik Kristen Eropa Barat untuak maraok baliak kakuasaan kabakeh Tanah Suci dari umat Islam. Rajo-rajo manjadi kapalo dari nagaro-nagaro bangso nan tersentralisasi. Sistem kapemimpinan samacam iko mangurangi angko kejahatan jo kekerasan, namun mambuek cita-cita untuak manciptakan suatu Dunia Kristen nan basatu samakin sukar diwujudkan. Kahidupan intelektual ditandoi dek skolastisisme, filsafaik nan mangutamoan keselarasan antaro iman jo aka budi, jo ditandoi pulo dek pandirian universitas-universitas. Teologi Thomas Aquinas, lukisan-lukisan Giotto, puisi-puisi Dante jo Chaucer, perjalanan-perjalanan Marco Polo, jo katedral-katedral balanggam Gothik semisal Katedral Chartres, adolah segelintir dari capaian-capaian manakjubkan pado pangujuang kurun ukatu Puncak Abaik Pertengahan jo permulaan kurun ukatu Akhir Abaik Patangahan.

Akhia Abaik Patangahan ditandoi dek babagai musibah jo malapetaka diantaronyo bancano kalaparan, wabah panyakiik, jo parang, nan sacaro signifikan mambuek suruik jumlah panduduak Eropa; antaro 1347 sampai 1350, wabah Maut Hitam mambunuah sekitar sapertigo dari panduduak Eropa. Kontroversi, bidah, jo Skisma Barat nan menimpa Gereja Katolik, tajadi bersamaan jo konflik antarnegara, pertikaian dalam masyarakat, jo pambarontakan-pambarontakan rakyaik jelata nan melanda kerajaan-kerajaan di Eropa. Parkembangan budayo jo teknologi mantransformasi masyarakaik Eropa, mangakhiri kurun ukatu Akha Abaik Patengahan, jo mangawali kurun ukatu Awal Zaman Modern.

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